Inflammatory Cytokines
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Bin-Fei Zhang ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Peng-Fei Wen ◽  
Yu-Min Zhang

Abstract Objectives The lung injury is often secondary to severe trauma. In the model of crush syndrome, there may be secondary lung injury. We hypothesize that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), released from muscle tissue, mediates the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) via HMGB1/Receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The study aimed to investigate how HMGB1 mediated the apoptosis of AEC in the rat model. Methods Seventy-five SD male rats were randomly divided into five groups: CS, CS + vehicle, CS + Ethyl pyruvate (EP), CS + FPS-ZM1 group, and CS + SP600125 groups. When the rats CS model were completed after 24 h, the rats were sacrificed. We collected the serum and the whole lung tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum samples. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to quantify the protein and mRNA. Lastly, apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL. We used SPSS 25.0 for statistical analyses. Results Nine rats died during the experiments. Dead rats were excluded from further analysis. Compared to the CS group, levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines in serum were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups. Western blot and RT-qPCR analysis revealed a significant downregulation of HMGB1, RAGE, and phosphorylated-JNK in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups, compared with the CS groups, excluding total-JNK mRNA. Apoptosis of AEC was used TUNEL to assess. We found the TUNEL-positive cells were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups. Conclusion The remote lung injury begins early after crush injuries. The HMGB1/RAGE/JNK signaling axis is an attractive target to abrogate the apoptosis of AEC after crush injuries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ramana Vaka ◽  
Saad Khan ◽  
Bin Ye ◽  
Yousef Risha ◽  
Sandrine Parent ◽  

Abstract Background Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Methods All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Results Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products. Conclusions The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carlos Minoru Omura ◽  
Daniela Dero Lüdtke ◽  
Verônica Vargas Horewicz ◽  
Paula Franson Fernandes ◽  
Taynah de Oliveira Galassi ◽  

ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization (AJM) on mechanical hyperalgesia and peripheral and central inflammatory biomarkers after intraplantar ( Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation.MethodsMale Swiss mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 7): Saline/Sham, CFA/Sham, and CFA/AJM. Five AJM sessions were carried out at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after CFA injection. von Frey test was used to assess mechanical hyperalgesia. Tissues from paw skin, paw muscle and spinal cord were collected to measure pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1) by ELISA. The macrophage phenotype at the inflammation site was evaluated by Western blotting assay using the Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS 2) and Arginase-1 immunocontent to identify M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively.ResultsOur results confirm a consistent analgesic effect of AJM following the second treatment session. AJM did not change cytokines levels at the inflammatory site, although it promoted a reduction in M2 macrophages. Also, there was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord.ConclusionTaken together, the results confirm the anti-hyperalgesic effect of AJM and suggest a central neuroimmunomodulatory effect in a model of persistent inflammation targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Min Zhao ◽  
Zhen Liu ◽  
Fei Shao ◽  
Wenjing Zhou ◽  
Zhu Chen ◽  

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 905
Sunhee Jang ◽  
Eui-Jong Kwon ◽  
Jennifer Jooha Lee

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease associated with synovial tissue proliferation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and systemic complications. Currently, advanced understandings of the pathologic mechanisms of autoreactive CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophages, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and autoantibodies that cause RA have been achieved, despite the fact that much remains to be elucidated. This review provides an updated pathogenesis of RA which will unveil novel therapeutic targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Guochao Chen ◽  
Wanqiao Zhang ◽  
Lingbo Kong ◽  
Chengxiang Wang ◽  
Xiaojing Lai ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a Gram-negative bacterium, has a high detection rate in hospital-acquired infections. Recently, the frequent appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) PA strain with high morbidity and mortality rates has aggravated the difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Due to its multiple resistance mechanisms, the commonly used antibiotics have gradually become less effective. Qiguiyin decoction (QGYD) is a clinically experienced prescription of Chinese herbal medicine, and its combined application with antibiotics has been confirmed to be effective in the clinical treatment of MDR PA infection, which could be a promising strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. However, the mechanism of QGYD restoring antibiotics susceptibility to MDR PA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QGYD and levofloxacin (LEV) singly or in combination on MDR PA-induced pneumonia rat models. Further analysis was carried out in the serum differential expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines by cytokine antibody array. Besides, the lung TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by RT-qPCR. Our results showed that based on the treatment of MDR PA-infected rat model with LEV, the combination of QGYD improved the general state and immune organ index. Furthermore, it moderately increased the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the early stage of infection and decreased their release rapidly in the later stage, while regulated the same phase change of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated after QGYD combined with LEV treatment. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly downregulated. These results indicated that the mechanism of QGYD restoring LEV susceptibility to MDR PA was related to its regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides theoretical support for the clinical application of QGYD combined with LEV therapy to MDR PA infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Souptik Basu ◽  
Indra N. Choudhury ◽  
Lynn Nazareth ◽  
Anu Chacko ◽  
Todd Shelper ◽  

AbstractPeripheral glial cell transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) is a promising approach for treating spinal cord injury (SCI). However, improvements are needed and one avenue to enhance regenerative functional outcomes is to combine growth factors with cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are neuroprotective, and a combination of these factors has improved outcomes in rat SCI models. Thus, transplantation of SCs combined with VEGF and PDGF may further improve regenerative outcomes. First, however, we must understand how the two factors modulate SCs. In this in vitro study, we show that an inflammatory environment decreased the rate of SC-mediated phagocytosis of myelin debris but the addition of VEGF and PDGF (alone and combined) improved phagocytosis. Cytokine expression by SCs in the inflammatory environment revealed that addition of PDGF led to significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, but IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10), remained unaltered. Further, PDGF was able to decrease the expression of myelination associated gene Oct6 in the presence of inflammatory environment. Overall, these results suggest that the use of VEGF and/or PDGF combined with SC transplantation may be beneficial in SCI therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 101-110
E. A. Ryabova ◽  
I. Y. Ragino

In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Obesity has become an underestimated pandemic and a public health threat around the world. Adipose tissue is positioned as an endocrine organ that secretes a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, inducing a state of chronic subinflammation. The results of epidemiological studies over the past 30 years have also shown that visceral adipose tissue is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, cardiometabolic diseases and chronic kidney disease. We performed a systematic review to summarize important aspects of the state of chronic subinflammation in the context of its effect on the decrease in glomerular filtration rate and the development of chronic kidney disease. The review deals with the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity, the hormonal profile of adipose tissue, the molecular mechanisms of the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines on the kidneys, and the pathophysiology of renal diseases. Information on the topic from publications based on the Pubmed database has been used.

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