Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) desensitization, which is characterized by hyporesponsiveness and a form of immunosuppression, is important in the negative regulation of responses to LPS and inflammatory disease such as sepsis. However, effect of IL-33 in the desensitization
to LPS remains unclear. Methods: We used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze changes in mRNA in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with LPS. Changes in expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were detected by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Mechanisms were
further studied through p65 phosphorylation detection. Results: IL-33 expression was significantly increased in LPS-treated macrophages, indicating its involvement in LPS-induced inflammation. Exogenous IL-33 increased the inflammatory response and ameliorated LPS desensitization by
increasing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. It also activated p65 phosphorylation in resistant cells. Conclusion: IL-33 can enhance the inflammatory response induced by LPS and ameliorate LPS desensitization possibly by activating the NF-κB pathway in mouse macrophages.
Background: Observational studies have revealed the association between some inflammatory cytokines and the occurrence of ischemic stroke, but the causal relationships remain unclear.Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to assess the causal effects of thirty inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke. For exposure data, we collected genetic variants associated with inflammatory cytokines as instrumental variables (IVs) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis from Finland (sample size up to 8,293). For the outcome data, we collected summary data of ischemic stroke from a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis involved 17 studies (34,217 cases and 406,111 controls). We further performed a series of sensitivity analyses as validation of primary MR results.Results: According to the primary MR estimations and further sensitivity analyses, we established one robust association after Bonferroni correction: the odds ratio (95% CI) per unit change in genetically increased IL-4 was 0.84 (0.89–0.95) for ischemic stroke. The chemokine MCP3 showed a nominally significant association with ischemic stroke risk (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, unadjusted p < 0.05). There was no evidence of a causal effect of other inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke.Conclusions: Our study suggested that genetically increased IL-4 levels showed a protective effect on the risk of ischemic stroke, which provides important new insights into the potential therapeutic target for preventing ischemic stroke.
Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.
All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis.
Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products.
The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.
ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization (AJM) on mechanical hyperalgesia and peripheral and central inflammatory biomarkers after intraplantar (i.pl.) Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation.MethodsMale Swiss mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 7): Saline/Sham, CFA/Sham, and CFA/AJM. Five AJM sessions were carried out at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after CFA injection. von Frey test was used to assess mechanical hyperalgesia. Tissues from paw skin, paw muscle and spinal cord were collected to measure pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1) by ELISA. The macrophage phenotype at the inflammation site was evaluated by Western blotting assay using the Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS 2) and Arginase-1 immunocontent to identify M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively.ResultsOur results confirm a consistent analgesic effect of AJM following the second treatment session. AJM did not change cytokines levels at the inflammatory site, although it promoted a reduction in M2 macrophages. Also, there was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord.ConclusionTaken together, the results confirm the anti-hyperalgesic effect of AJM and suggest a central neuroimmunomodulatory effect in a model of persistent inflammation targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF.
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a Gram-negative bacterium, has a high detection rate in hospital-acquired infections. Recently, the frequent appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) PA strain with high morbidity and mortality rates has aggravated the difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Due to its multiple resistance mechanisms, the commonly used antibiotics have gradually become less effective. Qiguiyin decoction (QGYD) is a clinically experienced prescription of Chinese herbal medicine, and its combined application with antibiotics has been confirmed to be effective in the clinical treatment of MDR PA infection, which could be a promising strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. However, the mechanism of QGYD restoring antibiotics susceptibility to MDR PA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QGYD and levofloxacin (LEV) singly or in combination on MDR PA-induced pneumonia rat models. Further analysis was carried out in the serum differential expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines by cytokine antibody array. Besides, the lung TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by RT-qPCR. Our results showed that based on the treatment of MDR PA-infected rat model with LEV, the combination of QGYD improved the general state and immune organ index. Furthermore, it moderately increased the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the early stage of infection and decreased their release rapidly in the later stage, while regulated the same phase change of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated after QGYD combined with LEV treatment. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly downregulated. These results indicated that the mechanism of QGYD restoring LEV susceptibility to MDR PA was related to its regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides theoretical support for the clinical application of QGYD combined with LEV therapy to MDR PA infection.
The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths, and there is still no effective treatment. COVID-19 can induce a systemic inflammatory response, and its clinical manifestations are diverse. Recently, it has been reported that COVID-19 patients may develop myositis and interstitial pulmonary disease similar to dermatomyositis (DM). This condition is similar to the rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease associated with MDA5+ DM that has a poor prognosis and high mortality, and this poses a challenge for an early identification. Suppression of the immune system can protect COVID-19 patients by preventing the production of inflammatory cytokines. This article attempts to explore the possibility of a relationship between COVID-19 and DM in terms of the potential pathogenesis and clinical features and to analyze the therapeutic effect of the immunosuppressive drugs that are commonly used for the treatment of both DM and COVID-19.