The additive manufacturing (AM) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites continue to grow due to the attractive strength-to-weight and modulus-to-weight ratios afforded by the composites combined with the ease of processibility achievable through the AM technique. Short fiber design factors such as fiber content effects have been shown to play determinant roles in the mechanical performance of AM fabricated CFRP composites. However, this has only been investigated for tensile and flexural properties, with no investigations to date on compressive properties effects of fiber content. This study examined the axial and transverse compressive properties of AM fabricated CFRP composites by testing CF-ABS with fiber contents from 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% for samples printed in the axial and transverse build orientations, and for axial tensile in comparison to the axial compression properties. The results were that increasing carbon fiber content for the short-fiber thermoplastic CFRP composites slightly reduced compressive strength and modulus. However, it increased ductility and toughness. The 20% carbon fiber content provided the overall content with the most decent compressive properties for the 0–30% content studied. The AM fabricated composite demonstrates a generally higher compressive property than tensile property because of the higher plastic deformation ability which characterizes compression loaded parts, which were observed from the different failure modes.