hydraulic permeability
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Milad Rohanifar ◽  
Benjamin B. Johnston ◽  
Alexandra L. Davis ◽  
Young Guang ◽  
Kayla Nommensen ◽  

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Zeman Liu ◽  
Yiqi Wang ◽  
Fei Guo

Fibrous membranes with a nonwoven random structure and a quasi-parallel fibrous structure can be fabricated by the electrospinning technique. The membranes with different structures exhibited different behaviors to a hydraulic flow passing through the membranes. This work presents the effects of the fiber arrangement, fiber diameter, and deformations of the fibers on the hydraulic permeability. The results showed that the hydraulic flow can generate an extrusion pressure which affects the porosity and pore structure of the fibrous membranes. The quasi-parallel fibrous membranes and nonwoven membranes exhibited similar variation tendencies to the change of the experimental variables. However, the quasi-parallel fibrous membranes exhibited a higher sensibility to the change of the hydraulic flow rate. The hydraulic permeability of the quasi-parallel fibrous membranes was further analyzed with packing state models in this work.

Géotechnique ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-41
Francesca Sollecito ◽  
Michael Plötze ◽  
Alexander M. Puzrin ◽  
Claudia Vitone ◽  
Daniela Miccoli ◽  

A detailed multi-scale investigation of the geotechnical, chemical and mineralogical properties was conducted on contaminated sediment samples collected within the Mar Piccolo, a marine basin in south of Italy. The basin is located close to one of the most important industrial sites in Europe also declared ‘at high risk of environmental crisis’ and prioritised for remediation activities. A multidisciplinary investigation campaign showed that the samples collected close to the seafloor are characterized by high values of both heavy metals and organic pollutants and by the presence of significant amount of organic matter. Several samples in the top layer exhibited peculiar geotechnical properties, in terms of plasticity and activity indexes, compressibility and hydraulic permeability. While the prime suspect for such unconventional behaviour was the chemo-mechanical coupling between soil skeleton and contaminants, it turned out that the biogeochemical degradation of organic matter and the presence of microfossils and diatoms is likely to affect significantly the micro to macro behaviour of polluted marine sediments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 71-72
Sophia Morawietz ◽  
Moritz Ziegler ◽  
Karsten Reiter ◽  

Abstract. The stress field in the Earth's crust plays a central role in the site-selection process for a deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site selection and construction planning must take into account several factors that are influenced by the stress state. These include the excavation damage zone, the hydraulic permeability of the host rock, the self-sealing capacity, the effects of seismic events and the possible reactivation of faults as migration pathways for fluids and radionuclides. Likewise, the initial stress state is of central importance for the long-term studies to prove site safety over 1 Ma. To obtain a continuous description of the current 3D stress state, 3D geomechanical numerical models are used. These models have to be calibrated with data on stress magnitudes to obtain robust predictions. One of the central goals of the SpannEnD project (Spannungsmodell Endlagerung Deutschland, http://www.spannend-projekt.de, last access: 31 October 2021) was to build the first comprehensive and publicly accessible stress magnitude database for Germany, including a quality ranking of the data compiled from different methods. This database is the logical extension of the database of the World Stress Map project, in which so far only information on stress orientations and the stress regime has been compiled systematically. We present this first compilation of stress magnitude data published and made available by Morawietz et al. (2020). The stress data density is generally low and heterogeneous, so that a model calibration at the scale of a site model is not possible. Therefore, the main objective of the SpannEnD project is to develop a 3D geomechanical numerical model for the whole of Germany. The resulting 3D stress field will provide the basis for regional and local models in a later phase of the site selection process. Details on this are presented in three complementary contributions in this symposium by Reiter et al., Röckel et al. and Ahlers et al. The new Geology Data Act (Geologie-Datengesetz) now allows access to considerably more data, which will be incorporated into an update of the database after assessment according to the defined quality criteria. This database extension will improve the reliability of the predictions of the geomechanical models on different spatial scales.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 175-177
René Kahnt ◽  
Heinz Konietzky ◽  
Thomas Nagel ◽  
Olaf Kolditz ◽  
Andreas Jockel ◽  

Abstract. Within the framework of the “Gesetz zur Suche und Auswahl eines Standortes für ein Endlager für hochradioaktive Abfälle” (Repository Site Selection Act – StandAG), the geoscientific and planning requirements and criteria for the site selection for a repository for high-active nuclear waste are specified. This includes, among others, the modelling of hydrogeological scenarios such as how future cold and warm periods and associated glaciation events can change the (petro-)physical properties specified in the StandAG as well as the natural hydrogeological properties of the overall system through, for example, reactivation of faults or changes in hydraulic gradients and consequently flow directions. The main objective of the AREHS (Effects of Changing Boundary Conditions on the Development of Hydrogeological Systems) project, funded by BASE (Federal Office for the Safety of Nuclear Waste Management; FKZ 4719F10402), is to model the effects of changing external boundary conditions on the hydrogeologically relevant parameters and effects (e.g. hydraulic permeability, porosity, migration pathways, fluid availability, hydraulic gradients) of a generic geological repository in Germany in all three potential host rocks (clay, salt and crystalline rocks) and its surrounding hydrogeological setting (Table 1). Special attention is paid to the cyclic mechanical loading and unloading due to glaciation events and the resulting stress changes (M), as well as induced temperature effects (T) due to permafrost and warm periods. As such processes can cause changes in the coupled far-field regime with groundwater flow and groundwater supply (H), as well as fluid transport due to thermal (T) and chemical (C) gradients, and reactivate faults/fractures (M) and thus create new/additional pathways, they are particularly relevant to the integrity of a repository over a period of 1 million years and must be properly captured with coupled THM(C) modelling. Before a model is set up for the different host rocks, a detailed assessment of relevant processes has been conducted based on NEA-2019 FEP catalogue (NEA, 2019) for high-level waste repositories. The modelling is performed using generic 3D models of typical host rock formations satisfying the StandAG criteria. Although the models for salt and clay rock have been adapted from generic models from recent research projects, for crystalline rock a new generic model had to be developed (Fig. 1) considering discontinuities of different scales that have to be incorporated into the THM(C) models explicitly as DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) networks. This is done by coupling two numerical codes: DFN-lab and 3DEC. A central phase in the overall modelling process is the benchmarking of the models with data from existing models and with field-scale studies. This is done separately for all three host rocks. In addition to extending the modelling capacities for glaciation processes and verifying by corresponding benchmarking tests (analytical solutions and literature comparisons), automated workflows have been developed to generate OpenGeoSys models from GOCAD structure models. Script-based automated workflows improve software quality for site investigation, especially in a sense of modularization as well as reproducibility. The generic workflow concept is currently being tested for the literature-based benchmarks and will, therefore, support a persistent and sustainable benchmarking procedure in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 894 (1) ◽  
pp. 012027
Syafrudin ◽  
M A Budihardjo ◽  
E Sutrisno ◽  
W D Nugraha ◽  
G Samudro

Abstract This study aims to investigate the influence of different mixtures on the phenomenon of desiccation cracking in bentonite-fly ash mixtures as a landfill liner system. Fly ash is quite potential to be used as a landfill liner mixture because it has a low hydraulic permeability or conductivity value. This study uses class F fly ash from the Paiton power plant production process, Indonesia, which has been distributed commercially. Desiccation test was conducted in this study. The composition of fly ash and bentonite which is used are pure fly ash (FAB0), fly ash and bentonite 15% (FAB15), fly ash and bentonite 20% (FAB20) and fly ash and bentonite 25% (FAB25). The smallest CIF value is found in the pure fly ash layer. However, the pure fly ash cannot be used as landfill liner because the high permeability value. Therefore, the addition of bentonite will increase the possibility of crack formation. This study reveals that the addition bentonite in the fly ash composite will increase the crack. However, determining appropriate mixture composition is critical when working on the landfill liner system.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 825
Adriana Janeca ◽  
Flávia S. C. Rodrigues ◽  
Maria Clara Gonçalves ◽  
Mónica Faria

A novel cellulose acetate-based monophasic hybrid skinned amine-functionalized CA-SiO2-(CH2)3NH2 membrane was synthesized using an innovative method which combines the phase inversion and sol-gel techniques. Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR). The characterization of the monophasic hybrid CA-SiO2-(CH2)3NH2 membrane in terms of permeation properties was carried out in an in-house-built single hemodialysis membrane module (SHDMM) under dynamic conditions. Permeation experiments were performed to determine the hydraulic permeability (Lp), molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and the rejection coefficients to urea, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin. SEM confirmed the existence of a very thin (<1 µm) top dense layer and a much thicker bottom porous surface, and ATR-FTIR showed the main bands belonging to the CA-based membranes. Permeation studies revealed that the Lp and MWCO of the CA-SiO2-(CH2)3NH2 membrane were 66.61 kg·h−1·m−2·bar−1 and 24.5 kDa, respectively, and that the Lp was 1.8 times higher compared to a pure CA membrane. Furthermore, the CA-SiO2-(CH2)3NH2 membrane fully permeated urea, creatinine, and uric acid while completely retaining albumin. Long-term filtration studies of albumin solutions indicated that fouling does not occur at the surface of the CA-SiO2-(CH2)3NH2 membrane.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1061
Katja Emmerich ◽  
Eleanor Bakker ◽  
Franz Königer ◽  
Christopher Rölke ◽  
Till Popp ◽  

Shaft seals are geotechnical barriers in nuclear waste deposits and underground mines. The Sandwich sealing system consists of alternating sealing segments (DS) of bentonite and equipotential segments (ES). MiniSandwich experiments were performed with blended Ca-bentonite (90 mm diameter and 125 mm height) to study hydration, swelling, solute transport and cation exchange during hydration with A3 Pearson water, which resembles pore water of Opalinus Clay Formation at sandy facies. Two experiments were run in parallel with DS installed either in one-layer hydrate state (1W) or in air-dry two-layer hydrate (2W) state. Breakthrough at 0.3 MPa injection pressure occurred after 20 days and the fluid inlet was closed after 543 days, where 4289 mL and 2984 mL, respectively, passed both cells. Final hydraulic permeability was 2.0–2.7·10−17 m2. Cells were kept for another 142 days before dismantling. Swelling of DS resulted in slight compaction of ES. No changes in the mineralogy of the DS and ES material despite precipitated halite and sulfates occurred. Overall cation exchange capacity of the DS does not change, maintaining an overall value of 72 ± 2 cmol(+)/kg. Exchangeable Na+ strongly increased while exchangeable Ca2+ decreased. Exchangeable Mg2+ and K+ remained nearly constant. Sodium concentration in the outflow indicated two different exchange processes while the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased potentially. Concentration of sulfate increased in the outflow, until it reached a constant value and chloride concentration decreased to a minimum before it slightly increased to a constant value. The available data set will be used to adapt numerical models for a mechanism-based description of the observed physical and geochemical processes.

2021 ◽  
Yong Zhang ◽  
Mei Yang ◽  
Yuan Zhou ◽  
Anrong Yao ◽  
Yanting Han ◽  

Abstract Through sequential electrospinning, a sandwich Janus membrane (PU-(CA/PU)-CA) was constructed with hydrophobic polyurethane (PU) nanofiber membrane as the top layer, cellulose acetate/polyurethane (CA/PU) blend nanofiber membrane as the intermediate transition layer and hydrophilic cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiber membrane as the bottom layer. The effects of membrane structure, composition and thickness on the mechanical properties, permeability and separation ability of PU-(CA/PU)-CA nanofiber membrane were studied. The results show that the transition sandwich structure PU-(CA/PU)-CA membrane has good mechanical properties, high permeability and selective separation ability, and can realize the unidirectional transmission of water and efficient oil-water separation. When the membrane thickness is 80 μm, the hydraulic permeability is 3.4×104 L/(m2 h bar), the oil-water separation efficiency reaches 99%, and the tensile strength is 95.8% higher than that of the double-layer PU-CA membrane without intermediate transition layer. The thermal stability and antifouling ability of PU-(CA/PU)-CA nanofiber membrane have also been improved, and the reusability is good. CA/PU transition interlayer improves the interfacial compatibility between CA and PU nanofiber membrane, enhances the performance of PU-(CA/PU)-CA nanofiber Janus membrane, and shows its application prospect in the field of separation and purification.

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