treatment resistant
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Georgios Mikellides ◽  
Panayiota Michael ◽  
Lilia Psalta ◽  
Teresa Schuhmann ◽  
Alexander T. Sack

Depression is a common mental disorder that affects many people worldwide, while a significant proportion of patients remain non-responsive to antidepressant medications. Alternative treatment options such as ketamine therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy are offered nowadays. This study aims to describe and compare the acute antidepressive efficacy of both, intramuscular ketamine and rTMS in depression patients seeking help in a naturalistic clinical mental health setting. The clinical records of 24 patients with treatment resistant depression were collected from the clinical base of a real life clinic. Twelve patients were treated with intramuscular ketamine, twice weekly for 8 sessions, and twelve patients were treated with 30 sessions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – intermittent theta-burst stimulation (DLPFC-iTBS). Using three clinical assessments (HDRS, HAM-A, BDI-II), our data reveal that both therapies led to significant improvement in symptoms from pre- to post- treatment, as well as that the two experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to pre- to post- depressive and anxiety symptoms, indicating that the effect of both experimental groups in our sample was equally effective. Furthermore, our results showed high remission and response rates in both groups, with no statistical differences between the patients of ketamine group and rTMS group in remission and response rates. We show a significant pre- to post- treatment reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms, with no significant differences between the two experimental groups, indicating that the effect of both therapies was equally effective in our limited sample.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Filippo Cantù ◽  
Giandomenico Schiena ◽  
Domenico Sciortino ◽  
Lorena Di Consoli ◽  
Giuseppe Delvecchio ◽  

Background: Depressive episodes, especially when resistant to pharmacotherapy, are a hard challenge to face for clinicians and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Neuromodulation has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), in particular transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this article, we present a case series of six patients who received TMS with an accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) protocol in a public healthcare setting.Methods: We enrolled a total number of six participants, affected by a treatment-resistant depressive episode, in either Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Patients underwent an accelerated iTBS protocol, targeted to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 3-week-long, with a total of 6 days of overall stimulation. On each stimulation day, the participants received 3 iTBS sessions, with a 15-min pause between them. Patients were assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), and the Mania Rating Scale (MRS). At baseline (T0), at the end of the second week (T1), and at the end of the cycle of stimulation (T2).Results: The rANOVA (repeated Analysis of Variance) statistics showed no significant effect of time on the rating scale scores, with a slight decrease in MADRS scores and a very slight increase in HAM-A and HAM-D scores. No manic symptoms emerged during the entire protocol.Conclusions: Although accelerated iTBS might be considered a less time-consuming strategy for TMS administration, useful in a public healthcare setting, our results in a real-word six-patient population with TRD did not show a significant effect. Further studies on wider samples are needed to fully elucidate the potential of accelerated iTBS protocols in treatment-resistant depression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Flurin Cathomas ◽  
Laura Bevilacqua ◽  
Aarthi Ramakrishnan ◽  
Hope Kronman ◽  
Sara Costi ◽  

AbstractKetamine has rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, the underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. There is increasing evidence that TRD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state and that ketamine may inhibit inflammatory processes. We thus investigated whole blood transcriptional profiles related to TRD and gene expression changes associated with treatment response to ketamine. Whole blood was collected at baseline (21 healthy controls [HC], 26 patients with TRD) and then again in patients with TRD 24 hours following a single intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg). We performed RNA-sequencing and analyzed (a) baseline transcriptional profiles between patients with TRD and HC, (b) responders vs. non-responders before ketamine treatment, and (c) gene expression signatures associated with clinical improvement. At baseline, patients with TRD compared to HC showed a gene expression signature indicative of interferon signaling pathway activation. Prior to ketamine administration, the metabotropic glutamate receptor gene GRM2 and the ionotropic glutamate receptor gene GRIN2D were upregulated in responders compared to non-responders. Response to ketamine was associated with a distinct transcriptional signature, however, we did not observe gene expression changes indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. Future studies are needed to determine the role of the peripheral immune system in the antidepressant effect of ketamine.

Iluminada Corripio ◽  
Alexandra Roldán ◽  
Peter McKenna ◽  
Salvador Sarró ◽  
Anna Alonso-Solís ◽  

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