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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anna Messina ◽  
Martina Lattanzi ◽  
Emiliano Albanese ◽  
Maddalena Fiordelli

Abstract Background There is sparse evidence on the impact on vulnerable populations of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of our study was to explore burden and mental wellbeing (including depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms) in caregivers of people with dementia during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy and southern Switzerland, two bordering regions severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We conducted an online cross-sectional survey with family carers of people with dementia between May and June 2020. We registered socio-demographic characteristics, and information about the relationship with the care recipient, dementia subtype, care inputs from others, and the need of care of the person with dementia. We measured caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), psychological distress with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and perceived isolation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Results Caregivers (N =571) reported moderate to severe care-related burden (mean=54.30; SD=18.33), moderate anxiety symptoms (mean=10.04; SD=6.93), mild depressive symptoms (mean=11.79; SD=6.12) and mild stress (mean=12.95; SD=5.53), and 72.3% of participants reported to feel lonely. All scores were significantly more severe in Swiss compared to Italian caregivers (all p values<0.001). Conclusions We found that caregivers’ burden, anxiety symptoms, depression and perceived loneliness were marked during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in two severely hit bordering countries. Regional differences in the impact of the epidemic on caregivers could be due to contextual, societal, and cultural circumstances. As the pandemic endures, support to caregivers of people with dementia should be proportionate and tailored to needs and adapted to contextual factors.

Yasuhiko Deguchi ◽  
Shinichi Iwasaki ◽  
Akihiro Niki ◽  
Aya Kadowaki ◽  
Tomoyuki Hirota ◽  

This study aims to clarify the effect of occupational stress and changes in the work environment on non-healthcare workers’ (HCWs) mental health during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 16 to 17 December 2020. Data from 807 non-HCWs were included. We evaluated occupational stress using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, respectively. We collected demographic variables, work-related variables, and the variables associated with COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratios for depressive and anxiety groups were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for all the demographic variables, work-related variables, COVID-19-related variables, and the six subdivided GJSQ subscales. The results confirm a relationship between variance in workload, job future ambiguity, social support from coworkers, having contact with COVID-19 patients, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Paying attention to job future ambiguity, the variance in workload at the workplace and individual perspectives, promoting contact and support among coworkers using online communication tools, and reducing contact with COVID-19 patients, will be useful for decreasing the depressive and anxiety symptoms among non-HCWs.

2022 ◽  
Eagle Hemp CBD gummies

A review published in Neurotherapeutics tested almost 49 Preclinical and analytical studies that found effects of CBD on anxiety symptoms. It found that CBD has “essential potential” to combat anxiety disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yanfei Zheng ◽  
Tianxing Li ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Hui Luo ◽  
Minghua Bai ◽  

Objective:This study investigated the COVID-19-prevention knowledge and practices of healthcare workers (HCWs), their psychological states concerning the return to work, and their trust and requirements in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to prevent and treat COVID-19. It is hoped that the study can serve as a reference for policy making during the resumption of work in other countries or regions experiencing similar situations.Methods:This study comprised a quantitative cross-sectional online survey design. Purposive sampling and Cluster sampling were used to recruit all HCWs working in public hospitals in Huangzhou District, Huanggang City, Hubei Province, China. From April 23 to May 14, 2020, surveys were sent electronically to all 13 public hospitals in this area.Results:In total, 2,079 responses were received and 2,050 completed forms were included. After analysis, 47.9 and 46.6% of HCWs indicated that they possessed very good knowledge or good knowledge of preventative measures, respectively. Multivariable log-binomial regression indicated that male, tertiary hospital, medical staff, and undergraduate/postgraduate qualification were associated with good knowledge. Good knowledge was also well-correlated with good practice (OR: 3.277; 95% CI: 2.734–3.928; P &lt; 0.01). 59.8% of HCWs reported worries about resuming work; especially asymptomatic infections. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) indicated that 10.8% of participants had mild anxiety, 1.5% moderate anxiety, and 0.1% severe anxiety. Female, divorced/widowed, and working in a high risk hospital (the Huangzhou District People's Hospital was used for throat swab examinations of returning workers) were risk factors for concerns about resuming work and anxiety symptoms. However, good preventive knowledge was a protective factor for anxiety. HCWs' trust in using TCM to treat COVID-19 was significantly higher than their trust in using TCM for prevention (P &lt; 0.001). Regarding preferences for preventative TCM products, oral TCM granules were the most preferred (62.4%). HCWs also indicated they wanted to know more about the clinical efficacy, applicable population, and adverse reactions of preventative TCM products (89.3, 81.1, and 81.4%, respectively).Conclusion:While HCWs had good knowledge of COVID-19 preventative measures, this did not eliminate the psychological impact of resumption of work. Promotion of COVID-19 prevention knowledge reduces the risk of infection, and alleviates the worries and anxiety symptoms of HCWs about resuming work (especially in administrative staff, those with low education, and those working in primary hospitals). Additional psychological support is required for female HCWs, divorced/widowed HCWs, and those working in high-risk hospitals. Finally, systematic trials of preventative TCM products are recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wanxin Wang ◽  
Yangfeng Guo ◽  
Xueying Du ◽  
Wenyan Li ◽  
Ruipeng Wu ◽  

Since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, adolescents' emerging mental health and behavior issues have been an international public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to examine the situation of poor sleep quality, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to explore the associations between them before and during COVID-19. A total of 1,952 middle and high school students as eligible participants at baseline (pre-COVID-19, Wave 1; response rate: 98.79%), 1,831 eligible students were followed up at Wave 2 (October 2019 to December 2019, pre-COVID-19; retention rate: 93.80%), and 1,790 completed the follow-up at Wave 3 (during the COVID-19; retention rate: 97.80%). The mean age of the baseline students was 13.56 (SD: 1.46) years. The differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms between Wave 1, Wave 2, and Wave 3 were not statistically significant. The proportion of students with poor sleep quality increased over time, from Wave 1 (21.0%) to Wave 3 (26.0%, OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.17–1.60, P = 0.001) and from Wave 2 (21.9%) to Wave 3 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.11–1.51, P &lt; 0.001). The cross-lagged generalized linear mixed models revealed that the concurrent and cross-lagged associations of poor sleep quality with anxiety symptoms across the three waves were significant (P &lt; 0.05) and vice versa. Only a marginally significant positive cross-lagged association between poor sleep quality at Wave 2 and depressive symptoms at Wave 3 was found (standardized β estimate = 0.044, SE = 0.022, P = 0.045). Sleep quality was adversely affected during COVID-19, and the bidirectional associations of poor sleep quality with anxiety symptoms could not be neglected.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Claudia Carmassi ◽  
Annalisa Cordone ◽  
Carlo Antonio Bertelloni ◽  
Andrea Cappelli ◽  
Virginia Pedrinelli ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Georgios Mikellides ◽  
Panayiota Michael ◽  
Lilia Psalta ◽  
Teresa Schuhmann ◽  
Alexander T. Sack

Depression is a common mental disorder that affects many people worldwide, while a significant proportion of patients remain non-responsive to antidepressant medications. Alternative treatment options such as ketamine therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy are offered nowadays. This study aims to describe and compare the acute antidepressive efficacy of both, intramuscular ketamine and rTMS in depression patients seeking help in a naturalistic clinical mental health setting. The clinical records of 24 patients with treatment resistant depression were collected from the clinical base of a real life clinic. Twelve patients were treated with intramuscular ketamine, twice weekly for 8 sessions, and twelve patients were treated with 30 sessions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – intermittent theta-burst stimulation (DLPFC-iTBS). Using three clinical assessments (HDRS, HAM-A, BDI-II), our data reveal that both therapies led to significant improvement in symptoms from pre- to post- treatment, as well as that the two experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to pre- to post- depressive and anxiety symptoms, indicating that the effect of both experimental groups in our sample was equally effective. Furthermore, our results showed high remission and response rates in both groups, with no statistical differences between the patients of ketamine group and rTMS group in remission and response rates. We show a significant pre- to post- treatment reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms, with no significant differences between the two experimental groups, indicating that the effect of both therapies was equally effective in our limited sample.

2022 ◽  
Isabelle Verhulst ◽  
Keren MacLennan ◽  
Anthony Haffey ◽  
Teresa Tavassoli

Rates of anxiety are inordinately high in autistic adults. Sensory reactivity differences, such as hyperreactivity (e.g., strong reactions to sound), hyporeactivity (e.g., no, or slower reactions to pain), and seeking (e.g., fascination with spinning objects) are a diagnostic criterion of autism and have been linked with anxiety. Understanding how individuals perceive these to be causally related can impact assessment and treatment of anxiety. Therefore, we examined the perceived causal relations between sensory reactivity differences and anxiety in autistic adults.246 autistic adults aged 18 – 76 years took part in an online study. They completed self-report assessments of sensory reactivity differences, and anxiety, followed by the perceived causal relations scale; indicating if they perceived their sensory reactivity differences to be more of a cause or an effect of their anxiety symptoms.Sensory reactivity differences were found to be significantly related to anxiety. Furthermore, total sensory hyperreactivity and visual, auditory, and olfactory hyperreactivity was perceived to be more of a cause of anxiety, whilst total sensory seeking and tactile and vestibular seeking was perceived to be more of an effect of anxiety. Therefore, sensory hyperreactivity and sensory seeking may be important to consider in anxiety treatments for autistic individuals.

2022 ◽  
Kelley Gunther ◽  
Daniel Petrie ◽  
Alaina Pearce ◽  
Bari Fuchs ◽  
Koraly Perez-Edgar ◽  

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain area in considering adaptive regulatory behaviors. This includes regulatory projections to regions of the limbic system such as the amygdala, where the nature of functional connections may confer lower risk for anxiety disorders. The PFC is also associated with behaviors like executive functioning. Inhibitory control is a behavior encompassed by executive functioning, and is generally viewed favorably for adaptive socioemotional development. Yet, some research suggests that high levels of inhibitory control may actually be a risk factor for some maladaptive developmental outcomes, like anxiety disorders. In a sample of 51 children ranging from 7-9 years old, we examined resting state functional connectivity between regions of the PFC and the amygdala. We used Subgrouping Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation (S-GIMME) to identify and characterize data-driven subgroups of individuals with similar networks of connectivity between these brain regions. Generated subgroups were collapsed into children characterized by the presence or absence of recovered connections between the PFC and amygdala. We then tested whether inhibitory control, as measured by a stop signal task, moderated the relation between these subgroups and child-reported anxiety symptoms. We found an inverse relation between stop-signal reaction times and reported count of anxiety symptoms when controlling for connectivity group, suggesting that greater inhibitory control was actually related to greater anxiety symptoms, but only when accounting for patterns of PFC-amygdala connectivity. These data suggest that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the nature of functional connections between the PFC and amygdala during this stage of development. The findings also provide support for the notion of high levels of inhibitory control as a risk factor for anxiety, but trait-level biopsychosocial factors may be important to consider in assessing the nature of risk.

2022 ◽  
Paula M. Trief ◽  
Diane Uschner ◽  
Melinda Tung ◽  
Marsha D. Marcus ◽  
Maria Rayas ◽  

Objectives<b>:</b> To assess prevalence of high diabetes distress and associated factors in the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY2) cohort of young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes. <p>Methods<b>:</b> Participants completed the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) at end-of-study visits. Factors examined for association with high distress were demographic (gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, income), medical (HbA1c, BMI, complications), psychological (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and social (number in household, have offspring, healthcare coverage, established with diabetes care provider). Univariate logistic regressions identified factors associated with high distress that were controlled for in multivariate logistic regressions.</p> <p><a>Results<b>:</b></a> Of 438 participants, 66% were female, mean age=26.8 years, 18% non-Hispanic white, 37% non-Hispanic Black, 38% Hispanic. High distress (DDS ≥2) was reported by 105 (24%) participants. Subscales identified 40% with high “Regimen Distress,” 29.7% with high “Emotional Burden.” <a>A greater percentage of those with high distress were female (p=0.002), diagnosed with hypertension (p=0.037) and retinopathy (p=0.005), insulin treated, had higher HbA1c, and moderate-to-severe depressive and anxiety symptoms (all p’s <0.001). </a>In multivariate analyses, female gender, HbA1c (p<0.001 for both), anxiety symptoms (p=0.036), and lack of healthcare coverage (p=0.019) were associated with high distress, controlling for potential confounders. Reporting moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms was associated with high regimen distress (p=0.018) and emotional burden (p<0.001); insulin treatment was associated with high emotional burden (p=0.027).</p> <p>Conclusion: Future research should identify modifiable factors associated with high diabetes distress in those with youth-onset type 2 diabetes that may inform distress interventions with this medically vulnerable group.</p>

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