Depressive Episodes
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2022 ◽  
pp. 026988112110667
Author(s):  
Grant M Jones ◽  
Matthew K Nock

Background: Depression is a major mental health issue worldwide, with high rates of chronicity and non-recovery associated with the condition. Existing treatments such as antidepressant medication and psychological treatments have modest effectiveness, suggesting the need for alternative interventions. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine)/ecstasy and psilocybin use and major depressive episodes (MDEs). Methods: This observational study used data from a large ( N = 213,437) nationally representative sample of US adults to test the association of lifetime use of MDMA/ecstasy, psilocybin and other classic psychedelics (lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), peyote, mescaline), other illegal substances (e.g. cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP)), and legal/medicinal substances of misuse (e.g. pain relievers, tranquilizers) with lifetime, past year, and past year severe MDEs. Results: Results revealed that lifetime MDMA/ecstasy use was associated with significantly lowered odds of a lifetime MDE (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.84; p < 0.001), past year MDE (aOR = 0.84; p < 0.001), and past year severe MDE (aOR = 0.82; p < 0.001). Psilocybin was associated with significantly lowered odds of a past year MDE (aOR = 0.90; p < 0.05) and past year severe MDE (aOR = 0.87; p < 0.05). All other substances either shared no relationship with a MDE or conferred increased odds of an MDE. Conclusions: These results suggest that MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin use is associated with lower risk of depression. Experimental studies are needed to test whether there is a causal association between use of these compounds and the alleviation of depressive symptoms.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 157-162
Author(s):  
Dae Yun Hwang ◽  
Yang Rae Kim ◽  
Young-Min Park

Objective: Previous studies have compared depressive episodes between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) using quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG); however, there are no distinct discriminating feature between them. Here, we used QEEG to directly compare the alpha asymmetry and absolute power of each band between patients with BD and MDD.Methods: Fifty in-patients with major depressive episodes between 2019 and 2021 were retrospectively enrolled. Self-reported questionnaires including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Korean version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self Report Scale (ASRS) were used to evaluate the symptoms. The absolute power of QEEG delta, theta, alpha, beta, high beta waves, and the Z-scores of frontal alpha asymmetry were collected. A t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were conducted using these data and based on these results, an analysis of covariance was conducted.Results: There were no significant differences between MDD and BD in QEEG power or alpha asymmetry. Patients with severe depression (BDI ≥29) had higher alpha power at FP1 (p=0.037), FP2 (p=0.028), F3 (p=0.047), F4 (p=0.016), and higher right frontal alpha asymmetry at F3–F4 (p=0.039). Adult patients with features consistent with ADHD (ASRS ≥4) had higher right frontal alpha asymmetry at F3–F4 (p=0.046). Patients with insomnia had higher left frontal alpha asymmetry at F3–F4 (p=0.003).Conclusion: QEEG limited the differential diagnosis of MDD and BD. However, frontal alpha asymmetry did exist in depression and affected cognitive impairment, insomnia, and depression severity in particular. Future studies with improved methodologies are needed for a better comparison.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 315-323
Author(s):  
Cesar Ivan Aviles Gonzalez ◽  
Matthias Angermeyer ◽  
Laura Deiana ◽  
Caterina Loi ◽  
Elisabetta Murgia ◽  
...  

Background: Suffering from Solid Cancer (SC) may adversely impact the Health-related Quality of Life (H-QoL). The aims of this study are to measure the H-QoL in a sample of people suffering from SC and to clarify the role of the co-occurrence of depressive episodes. Results were compared with a healthy control group and with groups of other disorders. Methods: In 151 patients with SC (mean±sd age 63.1±11.5; female 54.3%), H-QoL was assessed by SF-12, depressive episodes were identified by PHQ-9. The attributable burden of SC in impairing H-QoL was calculated as the difference between SF-12 score of a community sex and age ¼ matched healthy control group and that of the study sample. The attributable burden of SC was compared with other chronic diseases using specific diagnostic groups drawn from case-control studies that used the same database for selecting control samples. Results: H-QoL in people with SC was significantly worse than in the healthy control group (p<0.0001). The attributable burden in worsening the H-QoL due to SC was similar to those of severe chronic diseases, but lower than Multiple Sclerosis (p<0.0001) or Fibromyalgia (p<0.00001). Having a depressive episode was a strong determinant of decreasing H-QoL, regardless of the severity of cancer. Conclusion: The findings confirm a strong impact of SC but showed that H-QoL in SC was higher than in chronic diseases with better “quoad vitam” outcome. Since depression was a strong determinant, its prevention, early detection and therapy are the main objectives that must be reached in cancer patients.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Sabitha Challa ◽  
◽  
Ahmed S Kabeil ◽  
Bithiah Inyang ◽  
Faisal J Gondal ◽  
...  

The association between Subclinical hypothyroidism and Depression is recognised. It is found that patients with Thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. The most commonly documented abnormalities are elevated T4 levels, Low T3, elevated rT3, a blunted TSH response to TSH, Positive anti thyroid autoantibodies and elevated CSF TRH concentrations. It is also found that thyroid hormone supplements appear to accelerate and enhance the clinical response to antidepressants. It is found out that Depression is associated with changes in Hypothalamic-pituitary axis as thyroid hormones act on the central nervous system. Mild thyroid dysfunction causes depression in younger patients (<60 years old) diagnosed by depressive scale. It was found that differences in age group may cause depressive episodes. Depressive episodes such as anxiety and the risk of committing suicide are considerable factors that differ according to the age of the individuals.SCH was found to be associated with depression in the younger adults (<60 years old). The only difference between SCH and normal thyroid function is TSH.In depressive disorder and subclinical hypothyroidism sex differences have also been recognised. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and Depression is assessed by various depressive scores such as Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton depression rating scale. As Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with low mood, Serum levels of TSH, FT3, FT4 and Hamilton depression, treatment with Levothyroxine showed significant decrease is TSH levels and Hamilton scores were decreased. Since the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hypothyroidism is high TSH cut-off levels is used,TSH cut off value for hypothyroidism is based on associated symptoms,TSH cut-off value is 2.5 MIU/L is optima


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Chen ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Xia Cao ◽  
Peiqu Liu ◽  
Jiali Liu ◽  
...  

Objective: Adolescents and young adults are susceptible to high-risk behaviors such as self-harm and suicide. However, the impact of childhood maltreatment on suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults with first episode of depression remains unclear. This study examined the association between suicide attempts and childhood maltreatment among adolescents and young adults with first depressive episodes.Methods: A total of 181 adolescents and young adults with first depressive episodes were included. The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) were used to assess childhood maltreatment and the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The suicide item in the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) 5.0 was used to assess the suicide attempts. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associated factors of suicide attempts.Results: The prevalence of SA in the total sample was 31.5% (95% CI = 24.9–38.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.07–4.40), smoking (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.10–6.37), anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02–1.08), and childhood maltreatment (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.07) were potential associated factors of SA. In addition, anxiety symptoms had a mediating effect on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and SA.Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with first depressive episodes and having experiences of childhood maltreatment are at a high risk of suicide. The severity of anxiety symptoms may mediate the relation between childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in this group of patients.


BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. e052922
Author(s):  
Stinne Høgh ◽  
Hanne Kristine Hegaard ◽  
Kristina Martha Renault ◽  
Eleonora Cvetanovska ◽  
Anette Kjærbye-Thygesen ◽  
...  

IntroductionPostpartum depression affects 10%–15% of women and has a recurrence rate of 40% in subsequent pregnancies. Women who develop postpartum depression are suspected to be more sensitive to the rapid and large fluctuations in sex steroid hormones, particularly estradiol, during pregnancy and postpartum. This trial aims to evaluate the preventive effect of 3 weeks transdermal estradiol treatment immediately postpartum on depressive episodes in women at high risk for developing postpartum depression.Methods and analysisThe Maternal Mental Health Trial is a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial involves three departments of obstetrics organised under Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark. Women who are singleton pregnant with a history of perinatal depression are eligible to participate. Participants will be randomised to receive either transdermal estradiol patches (200 µg/day) or placebo patches for 3 weeks immediately postpartum. The primary outcome is clinical depression, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V criteria of Major Depressive Disorder with onset at any time between 0 and 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, symptoms of depression postpartum, exclusive breastfeeding, cortisol dynamics, maternal distress sensitivity and cognitive function. The primary statistical analysis will be performed based on the intention-to-treat principle. With the inclusion of 220 participants and a 20% expected dropout rate, we anticipate 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in postpartum depressive episodes while controlling the type 1 error at 5%.Ethics and disseminationThe study protocol is approved by the Regional Committees on Health Research Ethics in the Capital Region of Denmark, the Danish Medicines Agency and the Centre for Data Protection Compliance in the Capital Region of Denmark. We will present results at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals and in other formats to engage policymakers and the public.Trial registration numberNCT04685148.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Sabitha Challa ◽  
◽  
Ahmed S Kabeil ◽  
Bithiah Inyang ◽  
Faisal J Gondal ◽  
...  

The association between Subclinical hypothyroidism and Depression is recognised. It is found that patients with Thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. The most commonly documented abnormalities are elevated T4 levels, Low T3, elevated rT3, a blunted TSH response to TSH, Positive anti thyroid autoantibodies and elevated CSF TRH concentrations. It is also found that thyroid hormone supplements appear to accelerate and enhance the clinical response to antidepressants. It is found out that Depression is associated with changes in Hypothalamic-pituitary axis as thyroid hormones act on the central nervous system. Mild thyroid dysfunction causes depression in younger patients (<60 years old) diagnosed by depressive scale. It was found that differences in age group may cause depressive episodes. Depressive episodes such as anxiety and the risk of committing suicide are considerable factors that differ according to the age of the individuals.SCH was found to be associated with depression in the younger adults (<60 years old). The only difference between SCH and normal thyroid function is TSH.In depressive disorder and subclinical hypothyroidism sex differences have also been recognised. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and Depression is assessed by various depressive scores such as Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton depression rating scale. As Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with low mood, Serum levels of TSH, FT3, FT4 and Hamilton depression, treatment with Levothyroxine showed significant decrease is TSH levels and Hamilton scores were decreased. Since the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hypothyroidism is high TSH cut-off levels is used,TSH cut off value for hypothyroidism is based on associated symptoms,TSH cut-off value is 2.5 MIU/L is optimal


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Leonardo Pozza Santos ◽  
Antônio Augusto Schäfer ◽  
Fernanda Oliveira Meller ◽  
Inacio Crochemore-Silva ◽  
Bruno Pereira Nunes ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: To assess the association between household food insecurity (FI) and major depressive episodes (MDE) amid Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Design: Cross-sectional study carried out with data from four consecutive population-based studies. Setting: The study was conducted between May and June 2020, in Bagé, a Brazilian southern city. Household FI was measured using the short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, we used two different approaches to define MDE: the cut-off point of ≥9 and the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R). Association between FI and MDE was analysed using crude and adjusted Poisson regression models. Participants: 1550 adults (≥20 years old). Results: The prevalence of household FI was 29.4% (95%C.I 25.0; 34.4). MDE prevalence varied from 4.4% (95%C.I. 3.1 to 6.0), when we used the DSM-IV-R criteria to define this condition, to 9.6% (95%C.I 7.3; 12.5) of the sample, when we used the cut-off point of ≥9 as definition. Prevalence of MDE was more than two times higher in those individuals living with FI, independent of the criteria adopted to define the outcome. Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the association’s magnitude. Conclusion: Household FI has been positively associated with MDE amid Covid-19 pandemic, independent of sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Actions are needed to warrant basic living conditions to avoid food insecurity and hunger and its consequences for the Brazilian population, especially those consequences linked to mental health disorders.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1116-1128
Author(s):  
Hsi-Chung Chen ◽  
Hui-Hsuan Hsu ◽  
Mong-Liang Lu ◽  
Ming-Chyi Huang ◽  
Chun-Hsin Chen ◽  
...  

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