Functional Connectivity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 108276
Pengfei Wang ◽  
Yihan Li ◽  
Yulei Sun ◽  
Jingtao Sun ◽  
Kai Niu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1248
Martina Gandola ◽  
Laura Zapparoli ◽  
Gianluca Saetta ◽  
Carlo Reverberi ◽  
Gerardo Salvato ◽  

Body integrity dysphoria (BID), a long-lasting desire for the amputation of physically healthy limbs, is associated with reduced fMRI resting-state functional connectivity of somatosensory cortices. Here, we used fMRI to evaluate whether these findings could be replicated and expanded using a task-based paradigm. We measured brain activations during somatosensory stimulation and motor tasks for each of the four limbs in ten individuals with a life-long desire for the amputation of the left leg and fourteen controls. For the left leg, BID individuals had reduced brain activation in the right superior parietal lobule for somatosensory stimulation and in the right paracentral lobule for the motor task, areas where we previously found reduced resting-state functional connectivity. In addition, for somatosensory stimulation only, we found a robust reduction in activation of somatosensory areas SII bilaterally, mostly regardless of the stimulated body part. Areas SII were regions of convergent activations for signals from all four limbs in controls to a significantly greater extent than in subjects with BID. We conclude that BID is associated with altered integration of somatosensory and, to a lesser extent, motor signals, involving limb-specific cortical maps and brain regions where the first integration of body-related signals is achieved through convergence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 4274
Iole Indovina ◽  
Luca Passamonti ◽  
Viviana Mucci ◽  
Giuseppe Chiarella ◽  
Francesco Lacquaniti ◽  

Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD), defined in 2017, is a vestibular disorder characterized by chronic dizziness that is exacerbated by upright posture and exposure to complex visual stimuli. This review focused on recent neuroimaging studies that explored the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PPPD and three conditions that predated it. The emerging picture is that local activity and functional connectivity in multimodal vestibular cortical areas are decreased in PPPD, which is potentially related to structural abnormalities (e.g., reductions in cortical folding and grey-matter volume). Additionally, connectivity between the prefrontal cortex, which regulates attentional and emotional responses, and primary visual and motor regions appears to be increased in PPPD. These results complement physiological and psychological data identifying hypervigilant postural control and visual dependence in patients with PPPD, supporting the hypothesis that PPPD arises from shifts in interactions among visuo-vestibular, sensorimotor, and emotional networks that overweigh visual over vestibular inputs and increase the effects of anxiety-related mechanisms on locomotor control and spatial orientation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 154596832110413
Michel R. T. Sinke ◽  
Geralda A. F. van Tilborg ◽  
Anu E. Meerwaldt ◽  
Caroline L. van Heijningen ◽  
Annette van der Toorn ◽  

Background. Recovery of motor function after stroke appears to be related to the integrity of axonal connections in the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, which may both be affected after cortical stroke. Objective. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the relationship of changes in measures of the CST and transcallosal tract integrity, with the interhemispheric functional connectivity and sensorimotor performance after experimental cortical stroke. Methods. We conducted in vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state functional MRI, and behavior testing in twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats recovering from unilateral photothrombotic stroke in the sensorimotor cortex. Twenty-three healthy rats served as controls. Results. A reduction in the number of reconstructed fibers, a lower fractional anisotropy, and higher radial diffusivity in the ipsilesional but intact CST, reflected remote white matter degeneration. In contrast, transcallosal tract integrity remained preserved. Functional connectivity between the ipsi- and contralesional forelimb regions of the primary somatosensory cortex significantly reduced at week 8 post-stroke. Comparably, usage of the stroke-affected forelimb was normal at week 28, following significant initial impairment between day 1 and week 8 post-stroke. Conclusions. Our study shows that post-stroke motor recovery is possible despite degeneration in the CST and may be supported by intact neuronal communication between hemispheres.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Mohamed Khateb ◽  
Jackie Schiller ◽  
Yitzhak Schiller

Synchronized activity plays an important role in sensory coding and memory and is a hallmark of functional network connectivity. However, the effect of sensory activation on synchronization and cortical functional connectivity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of whisker activation on synchronization and functional connectivity of the primary (wS1) and secondary (wS2) whisker somatosensory cortices at the single-cell level. The results showed that during the spontaneous pre-stimulus state, neurons tended to be functionally connected with nearby neurons which shared similar tuning characteristics. Whisker activation using either ramp-and-hold stimulation or artificial whisking against sandpaper has significantly reduced the average overall pairwise synchronization and functional connectivity within the wS1 barrel and wS2 cortices. Whisker stimulation disconnected approximately a third of neuronal pairs that were functionally connected during the unstimulated state. Nearby neurons with congruent tuning properties were more likely to remain functionally connected during whisker activation. The findings of this study indicated that cortical somatosensory networks are organized in non-random small world networks composed of neurons sharing relatively similar tuning properties. Sensory whisker activation intensifies these properties and further subdivides the cortical network into smaller more functionally uniform subnetworks, which possibly serve to increase the computational capacity of the network.

2021 ◽  
Thomas Connor ◽  
Maiju Qiao ◽  
Kim Scribner ◽  
Jindong Zhang ◽  
Vanessa Hull ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Deborah L. Harrington ◽  
Qian Shen ◽  
Vida Sadeghi ◽  
Mingxiong Huang ◽  
Irene Litvan ◽  

Decline in semantic cognition in early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a leading risk factor for future dementia, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are not understood. The present study addressed this gap by investigating the functional connectivity of regions involved in semantic recollection. We further examined whether microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) risk variants, which may accelerate cognitive decline, altered the strength of regional functional connections. Cognitively normal PD and healthy elder controls underwent fMRI while performing a fame-discrimination task, which activates the semantic network. Analyses focused on disturbances in fame-modulated functional connectivity in PD for regions that govern semantic recollection and interrelated processes. Group differences were found in multiple connectivity features, which were reduced into principal components that reflected the strength of fame-modulated regional couplings with other brain areas. Despite the absence of group differences in semantic cognition, two aberrant connectivity patterns were uncovered in PD. One pattern was related to a loss in frontal, parietal, and temporal connection topologies that governed semantic recollection in older controls. Another pattern was characterized by functional reconfiguration, wherein frontal, parietal, temporal and caudate couplings were strengthened with areas that were not recruited by controls. Correlations between principal component scores and cognitive measures suggested that reconfigured frontal coupling topologies in PD supported compensatory routes for accessing semantic content, whereas reconfigured parietal, temporal, and caudate connection topologies were detrimental or unrelated to cognition. Increased tau transcription diminished recruitment of compensatory frontal topologies but amplified recruitment of parietal topologies that were unfavorable for cognition. Collectively, the findings provide a new understanding of early vulnerabilities in the functional architecture of regional connectivity during semantic recollection in cognitively normal PD. The findings also have implications for tracking cognitive progression and selecting patients who stand to benefit from therapeutic interventions.

Epilepsia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Maxwell G. Farina ◽  
Mani Ratnesh S. Sandhu ◽  
Maxime Parent ◽  
Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli ◽  
Matthew Derbin ◽  

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