design process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Minja Axelsson ◽  
Raquel Oliveira ◽  
Mattia Racca ◽  
Ville Kyrki

Design teams of social robots are often multidisciplinary, due to the broad knowledge from different scientific domains needed to develop such complex technology. However, tools to facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration are scarce. We introduce a framework for the participatory design of social robots and corresponding canvas tool for participatory design. The canvases can be applied in different parts of the design process to facilitate collaboration between experts of different fields, as well as to incorporate prospective users of the robot into the design process. We investigate the usability of the proposed canvases with two social robot design case studies: a robot that played games online with teenage users and a librarian robot that guided users at a public library. We observe through participants’ feedback that the canvases have the advantages of (1) providing structure, clarity, and a clear process to the design; (2) encouraging designers and users to share their viewpoints to progress toward a shared one; and (3) providing an educational and enjoyable design experience for the teams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 160 ◽  
pp. 107071
Beatriz González-Alzaga ◽  
Antonio F. Hernández ◽  
L. Kim Pack ◽  
Ivo Iavicoli ◽  
Hanna Tolonen ◽  

Hafiz Muhammad Athar Farid ◽  
Muhammad Riaz

AbstractSingle-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and their application to material selection in engineering design. Liquid hydrogen is a feasible ingredient for energy storage in a lightweight application due to its high gravimetric power density. Material selection is an essential component in engineering since it meets all of the functional criteria of the object. Materials selection is a time-consuming as well as a critical phase in the design process. Inadequate material(s) selection can have a detrimental impact on a manufacturer’s production, profitability, and credibility. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) is an important tool in the engineering design process that deals with complexities in material selection. However, the existing MCDM techniques often produce conflicting results. To address such problems, an innovative aggregation technique is proposed for material selection in engineering design based on truthness, indeterminacy, and falsity indexes of SVNSs. Taking advantage of SVNSs and smooth approximation with interactive Einstein operations, single-valued neutrosophic Einstein interactive weighted averaging and geometric operators are proposed. Based on proposed AOs, a robust MCDM approach is proposed for material selection in engineering design. A practical application of the proposed MCDM approach for material selection of cryogenic storage containers is developed. Additionally, the authenticity analysis and comparison analysis are designed to discuss the validity and rationality of the optimal decision.

2022 ◽  
Jason Hearn ◽  
Sahr Wali ◽  
Patience Birungi ◽  
Joseph A. Cafazzo ◽  
Isaac Ssinabulya ◽  

Background: The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in Uganda. Ugandan patients with HF report receiving limited information about their illness, disease management, or empowerment to engage in self-care behaviors. Interventions targeted at improving HF self-care have been shown to improve patient quality of life and to reduce hospitalizations in high-income countries. However, such interventions remain underutilized in resource-limited settings like Uganda. Objective: To develop a digital health intervention that enables improved self-care amongst HF patients in Uganda. Methods: We implemented a user-centred design process to develop a self-care intervention entitled Medly Uganda. The ideation phase comprised a systematic scoping review and preliminary data collection amongst HF patients and clinicians in Uganda. An iterative design process was then used to advance an initial prototype into a fully-functional digital health intervention. The evaluation phase involved usability testing of the developed intervention amongst Ugandan patients with HF and their clinicians. Results: Medly Uganda is a digital health intervention that is fully integrated within a government-operated mobile health platform. The system allows patients to report daily HF symptoms, receive tailored treatment advice, and connect with a clinician when showing signs of decompensation. Medly Uganda harnesses Unstructured Supplementary Service Data technology that is already widely used in Uganda for mobile phone-based financial transactions. Usability testing showed the system to be accepted by patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Conclusions: Medly Uganda is a fully-functional and well-accepted digital health intervention that enables Ugandan HF patients to better care for themselves. Moving forward, we expect the system to help decongest cardiac clinics and improve self-care efficacy amongst HF patients in Uganda.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Clément Cormi ◽  
Khuloud Abou-Amsha ◽  
Matthieu Tixier ◽  
Myriam Lewkowicz

The growing use of teleconsultation, especially since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, changes physicians' work at the hospital. In this paper, we set out to study how physicians have integrated teleconsultation into their healthcare practices. Moreover, we are interested in how teleconsultation software contributes to developing new medical practices and how the design of teleconsultation software can better support them. Based on 16 months of fieldwork in a general hospital that offers two different teleconsultation software, we have investigated teleconsultation practices through interviews and observations involving ten physicians doing teleconsultation and a telemedicine secretary. Unlike the existing informal remote care by phone, we observe that teleconsultation supports new formal healthcare practices, particularly for patient care management and inter-organizational cooperation. While analyzing the integration of teleconsultation in physicians' practices, we highlight that both pieces of software do not support those practices on equal terms according to their design. We argue that teleconsultation software design can limit the spread of these new healthcare practices and that the artifact ecology of physicians should be considered during the design process.

Nyet Moi Siew

This research was conducted to explore the STEM imagination of Grade 10 students from one Malaysian rural secondary school that adopted the integration of the imagination process in an Engineering Design Process (EDP) through an outreach program in STEM. Four stages of the STEM imagination process were examined: initiation, dynamic adjustment, virtual implementation and implementation. A total of 50 students aged 16 participated in a 10-hour program which engaged them in designing and building two different prototypes. Data on students’ STEM imagination were captured through teachers’ field notes based on focus group interviews and observations. The findings reveal that students needed to draw from their lived experiences to brainstorm problems and solutions around a given scenario, and to arrive at a workable solution in order to move from the initiation to the implementation stage. The findings also suggested that the EDP approach is able to create a supportive environment for nurturing STEM imagination among rural secondary school students.

10.2196/27631 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e27631
Kate M Gunn ◽  
Gemma Skaczkowski ◽  
James Dollman ◽  
Andrew D Vincent ◽  
Camille E Short ◽  

Background Farming is physically and psychologically hazardous. Farmers face many barriers to help seeking from traditional physical and mental health services; however, improved internet access now provides promising avenues for offering support. Objective This study aims to co-design with farmers the content and functionality of a website that helps them adopt transferable coping strategies and test its acceptability in the broader farming population. Methods Research evidence and expert opinions were synthesized to inform key design principles. A total of 18 farmers detailed what they would like from this type of website. Intervention logic and relevant evidence-based strategies were mapped. Website content was drafted and reviewed by 2 independent mental health professionals. A total of 9 farmers provided detailed qualitative feedback on the face validity of the draft content. Subsequently, 9 farmers provided feedback on the website prototype. Following amendments and internal prototype testing and optimization, prototype usability (ie, completion rate) was examined with 157 registered website users who were (105/157, 66.9%) female, aged 21-73 years; 95.5% (149/156) residing in inner regional to very remote Australia, and 68.2% (107/157) “sheep, cattle and/or grain farmers.” Acceptability was examined with a subset of 114 users who rated at least module 1. Interviews with 108 farmers who did not complete all 5 modules helped determine why, and detailed interviews were conducted with 18 purposively sampled users. Updates were then made according to adaptive trial design methodology. Results This systematic co-design process resulted in a web-based resource based on acceptance and commitment therapy and designed to overcome barriers to engagement with traditional mental health and well-being strategies—ifarmwell. It was considered an accessible and confidential source of practical and relevant farmer-focused self-help strategies. These strategies were delivered via 5 interactive modules that include written, drawn, and audio- and video-based psychoeducation and exercises, as well as farming-related jokes, metaphors, examples, and imagery. Module 1 included distress screening and information on how to speak to general practitioners about mental health–related concerns (including a personalized conversation script). Modules were completed fortnightly. SMS text messages offered personalized support and reminders. Qualitative interviews and star ratings demonstrated high module acceptability (average 4.06/5 rating) and suggested that additional reminders, higher quality audio recordings, and shorter modules would be useful. Approximately 37.1% (52/140) of users who started module 1 completed all modules, with too busy or not got to it yet being the main reason for non-completion, and previous module acceptability not predicting subsequent module completion. Conclusions Sequential integration of research evidence, expert knowledge, and farmers’ preferences in the co-design process allowed for the development of a self-help intervention that focused on important intervention targets and was acceptable to this difficult-to-engage group. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000506392;

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