self care
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Beata Gavurova ◽  
Boris Popesko ◽  
Viera Ivankova ◽  
Martin Rigelsky

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Seyedeh Zeinab Beheshti ◽  
Seyed-Sirvan Hosseini ◽  
Saman Maroufizadeh ◽  
Amir Almasi-Hashiani

Abstract Objectives Limited studies were found to investigate the occupational performance of autistic children and their parents’ quality of life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate occupational performance of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and QoL of their mothers. Results In this study, 88 participants were selected from autism centers in Arak, Iran, 2020. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the parent version of Quality of Life in Autism Questionnaire (QoLA-P) were used to assess the occupational performance of ASD children and their mothers QoL. QoLA-P consists of parts A which is related to the quality of life and part-B related to the problems that these children have and are related to the parents or their caregivers. Regarding occupational performance, the first priority of mothers is self-care with frequency 64.8%. The finding suggested a significant correlation between total function score of COPM and the score of part-A (r = 0.227, p = 0.033) of QoLA-P. Also, the results revealed a significant correlation between the total satisfaction score of COPM and the score of part-A (r = 0.236, p = 0.026) and part-B of QoLA-P questionnaire (r = 0.231, p = 0.030). The mothers’ first priority is self-care and, the total satisfaction and function score of COPM showed a significant correlation with mothers’ QoL.

2022 ◽  
Jason Hearn ◽  
Sahr Wali ◽  
Patience Birungi ◽  
Joseph A. Cafazzo ◽  
Isaac Ssinabulya ◽  

Background: The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in Uganda. Ugandan patients with HF report receiving limited information about their illness, disease management, or empowerment to engage in self-care behaviors. Interventions targeted at improving HF self-care have been shown to improve patient quality of life and to reduce hospitalizations in high-income countries. However, such interventions remain underutilized in resource-limited settings like Uganda. Objective: To develop a digital health intervention that enables improved self-care amongst HF patients in Uganda. Methods: We implemented a user-centred design process to develop a self-care intervention entitled Medly Uganda. The ideation phase comprised a systematic scoping review and preliminary data collection amongst HF patients and clinicians in Uganda. An iterative design process was then used to advance an initial prototype into a fully-functional digital health intervention. The evaluation phase involved usability testing of the developed intervention amongst Ugandan patients with HF and their clinicians. Results: Medly Uganda is a digital health intervention that is fully integrated within a government-operated mobile health platform. The system allows patients to report daily HF symptoms, receive tailored treatment advice, and connect with a clinician when showing signs of decompensation. Medly Uganda harnesses Unstructured Supplementary Service Data technology that is already widely used in Uganda for mobile phone-based financial transactions. Usability testing showed the system to be accepted by patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Conclusions: Medly Uganda is a fully-functional and well-accepted digital health intervention that enables Ugandan HF patients to better care for themselves. Moving forward, we expect the system to help decongest cardiac clinics and improve self-care efficacy amongst HF patients in Uganda.

2022 ◽  
pp. 263501062110653
Rachel S. Purvis ◽  
Ramey A. Moore ◽  
Britni L. Ayers ◽  
Holly C. Felix ◽  
Sheldon Riklon ◽  

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore experiences of Marshallese adults related to diabetes self-care behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized to understand participants’ diabetes self-care behaviors during the pandemic. Nine focus groups with 53 participants were held via videoconference and conducted in English, Marshallese, or a mixture of both languages. A priori codes based on diabetes self-care behaviors provided a framework for analyzing and summarizing participant experiences. Results: Both increases and decreases in healthy eating and exercise were described, with improvements in health behaviors attributed to health education messaging via social media. Participants reported increased stress and difficulty monitoring and managing glucose. Difficulty obtaining medication and difficulty seeing their health care provider regularly was reported and attributed to health care provider availability and lack of insurance due to job loss. Conclusions: The study provides significant insight into the reach of health education campaigns via social media and provides important information about the reasons for delays in care, which extend beyond fear of contracting COVID-19 to structural issues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Elise Mosley-Johnson ◽  
Rebekah J. Walker ◽  
Madhuli Thakkar ◽  
Jennifer A. Campbell ◽  
Laura Hawks ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of this analysis was to examine the influence of housing insecurity on diabetes processes of care and self-care behaviors and determine if that relationship varied by employment status or race/ethnicity. Methods Using nationally representative data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2014-2015), 16,091 individuals were analyzed for the cross-sectional study. Housing insecurity was defined as how often respondents reported being worried or stressed about having enough money to pay rent/mortgage. Following unadjusted logistic models testing interactions between housing insecurity and either employment or race/ethnicity on diabetes processes of care and self-care behaviors, stratified models were adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, health insurance status, and comorbidity count. Results 38.1% of adults with diabetes reported housing insecurity. Those reporting housing insecurity who were employed were less likely to have a physicians visit (0.58, 95%CI 0.37,0.92), A1c check (0.45, 95%CI 0.26,0.78), and eye exam (0.61, 95%CI 0.44,0.83), while unemployed individuals were less likely to have a flu vaccine (0.84, 95%CI 0.70,0.99). Housing insecure White adults were less likely to receive an eye exam (0.67, 95%CI 0.54,0.83), flu vaccine (0.84, 95%CI 0.71,0.99) or engage in physical activity (0.82, 95%CI 0.69,0.96), while housing insecure Non-Hispanic Black adults were less likely to have a physicians visit (0.56, 95%CI 0.32,0.99). Conclusions Housing insecurity had an influence on diabetes processes of care and self-care behaviors, and this relationship varied by employment status and race/ethnicity. Diabetes interventions should incorporate discussion surrounding housing insecurity and consider differences in the impact by demographic factors on diabetes care.

2022 ◽  
Rezarta Lalo ◽  

Recently, mental health issue and chronic physical condition are substantially linked and this comorbidity is likely to increase.Patient focusing in the self-care activities is an important component in the mechanism of coping with chronic disease with a significant impact on clinical and psychological outcomes. In this context, the current study is conducted to assess the impact of self-care and social integration mechanisms on anxiety levels among patients with chronic non-communicable diseases.This observational study of cross-sectional design was performed in the pathology service of Fier city hospital, in Albania during August-September 2020. To assess the level of anxiety, we used the scale of 7 items of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) with a score of ≥10 indicating GAD. Subscales of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) were used in order to evaluate social integration and self-care mechanism. The data were entered into the statistical program SPSS, version 23. The regression analysis is performedto examine the relationship between variables. The findings revealed that 56% of participants had GAD, 47% of participants were unable to self-monitor the disease, while 89% of them didnot performe any type of physical activity. The scale of anxiety was significantly associated with variables of Self–monitoring (p=0.000<0.05; OR=0.10) and Social integration (p=0.000<0.05; OR=21.4). These findings address the need to support peoplewho struggle with chronic non-communicable diseases developing adaptive ways to deal with their chronic condition and improve their lifestyle for better overall health.

2022 ◽  
pp. 263501062110653
Isabel Mendez ◽  
Elizabeth A. Lundeen ◽  
Magon Saunders ◽  
Alexis Williams ◽  
Jinan Saaddine ◽  

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to assess self-reported receipt of diabetes education among people with diabetes and its association with following recommended self-care and clinical preventive care practices. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2017 and 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 61 424 adults (≥18 years) with self-reported diabetes in 43 states and Washington, DC. Diabetes education was defined as ever taking a diabetes self-management class. The association of diabetes education with self-care practices (daily glucose testing, daily foot checks, smoking abstention, and engaging in leisure-time physical activity) and clinical practices (pneumococcal vaccination, biannual A1C test, and an annual dilated eye exam, influenza vaccination, health care visit for diabetes, and foot exam by a medical professional) was assessed. Multivariable logistic regression with predicted margins was used to predict the probability of following these practices, by diabetes education, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Of adults with diabetes, only half reported receiving diabetes education. Results indicate that receipt of diabetes education is associated with following self-care and clinical preventive care practices. Those who did receive diabetes education had a higher predicted probability for following all 4 self-care practices (smoking abstention, daily glucose testing, daily foot check, and engaging in leisure-time physical activity) and all 6 clinical practices (pneumonia vaccination, biannual A1C test, and an annual eye exam, flu vaccination, health care visit, and medical foot exam). Conclusions: The prevalence of adults with diabetes receiving diabetes education remains low. Increasing receipt of diabetes education may improve diabetes-related preventive care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Pei-Yao Hung ◽  
Drew Canada ◽  
Michelle A. Meade ◽  
Mark S. Ackerman

Chronic health conditions are becoming increasingly prevalent. As part of chronic care, sharing patient-generated health data (PGHD) is likely to play a prominent role. Sharing PGHD is increasingly recognized as potentially useful for not only monitoring health conditions but for informing and supporting collaboration with caregivers and healthcare providers. In this paper, we describe a new design for the fine-grained control over sharing one's PGHD to support collaborative self-care, one that centers on giving people with health conditions control over their own data. The system, Data Checkers (DC), uses a grid-based interface and a preview feature to provide users with the ability to control data access and dissemination. DC is of particular use in the case of severe chronic conditions, such as spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D), that require not just intermittent involvement of healthcare providers but daily support and assistance from caregivers. In this paper, after providing relevant background information, we articulate our steps for developing this innovative system for sharing PGHD including (a) use of a co-design process; (b) identification of design requirements; and (c) creation of the DC System. We then present a qualitative evaluation of DC to show how DC satisfied these design requirements in a way that provided advantages for care. Our work extends existing research in the areas of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp), and Health Informatics about sharing data and PGHD.

2022 ◽  
Sara Guila Fidel-Kinori ◽  
Gerard Carot-Sans ◽  
Andres Cuartero ◽  
Damià Valero-Bover ◽  
Rosa Romà-Monfà ◽  

BACKGROUND Quarantines and nationwide lockdowns dictated for containing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to distress and increase the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms among the general population. During the national lockdown of the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain, we developed and launched a Web App to promote emotional self-care in the general population and facilitate contact with healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVE To describe the Web App and analyse its utilization pattern throughout two successive waves of the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain. METHODS The Web App targeted all individuals aged 18 years or more and was designed by adapting the contents of a mobile App for adjuvant treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (i.e., the PTSD Coach App) to the general population and the pandemic/lockdown scenario. We retrospectively assessed the utilization pattern of the Web App using data systematically retrieved from Google Analytics. Data were grouped into three time periods, defined using a join point analysis of COVID-19 incidence in our area: first wave, between-wave period, and second wave. RESULTS The resulting Web App, named, maintains the navigation structure of the PTSD Coach App, with three main modules: tools for emotional self-care, a self-assessment test, and professional resources for on-demand contact. The self-assessment test combines the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and offers professional contact in the advent of a high level of depression and anxiety; contact is prioritized according to a screening questionnaire administered at the time of obtaining individual consent to be contacted. The tools for emotional self-care can be accessed either on-demand or symptom-driven. The utilization analysis showed a high number of weekly accesses during the first wave. In this period, press releases regarding critical events of the pandemic progression and government decisions on containment measures were followed by a utilization peak, irrespective of the sense (i.e., positive or negative) of the information. Positive information pieces (e.g., relaxation of containment measures due to a reduction of COVID-19 cases) resulted in a sharp increase in utilization immediately after information release, followed by a successive decline in utilization. The second wave was characterized by a lower and less responsive utilization of the Web App. CONCLUSIONS mHealth tools may help the general population coping with stressful conditions associated with the pandemic scenario. Future studies shall investigate the effectiveness of these tools among the general population―including individuals without diagnosed mental illnesses―and strategies to reach as many people as possible. CLINICALTRIAL Not applicable

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