Wastewater-based epidemiology for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in wastewater is desirable for understanding COVID-19 in settings where financial resources and diagnostic facilities for mass individual testing are severely limited. We conducted a rapid review to map research evidence on the utilization of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance in Africa. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization library databases for relevant reports, reviews, and primary observational studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis of the findings from included primary studies revealed the testing methodologies utilized and that detected amount of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA correlated with the number of new cases in the studied areas. The included reviews revealed the epidemiological significance and environmental risks of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater. Wastewater surveillance data at the community level can be leveraged for the rapid assessment of emerging threats and aid pandemic preparedness. Our rapid review revealed a glaring gap in the primary literature on SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance on the continent, and accelerated and adequate investment into research is urgently needed to address this gap.
The Covid-19 pandemic has been a devastating mass bereavement event, with measures to control the virus leading to unprecedented changes to end-of-life and mourning practices. In this review we consider the research evidence on the experiences of people bereaved during the pandemic. We summarise key findings reported in the first five publications from our UK-based Bereavement during COVID-19 study, drawing comparisons with available evidence from other studies of bereavement during the pandemic. We summarise these findings across three main topics: experiences at the end of life and in early bereavement; coping and informal support during the pandemic; and access to bereavement and mental health services. The synthesis demonstrates the exceptional challenges of pandemic bereavement, including high levels of disruption to end-of-life care, dying and mourning practices as well as to people’s social networks and usual coping mechanisms. We identified considerable needs for emotional, therapeutic and informal support among bereaved people, compounded by significant difficulties in receiving and accessing such support. We provide evidence-based recommendations for improving people’s experiences of bereavement and access to support at all levels.
This article reviewed the published studies on the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among children and assessed the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The current knowledge of the potential health effects of increased 1-OHP in children was reviewed. Additionally, the influence of genetic polymorphism on the urinary 1-OHP level was discussed in this review. The assembled data showed that children who are attending schools or living close to industrial and polluted urban areas might have greater exposure to higher concentrations of PAHs with a higher level of urinary 1-OHP when compared to those children living in rural areas. Urinary 1-OHP may be a reliable biomarker for determining the genotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation caused by exposure to PAHs. Strong research evidence indicated that the total body burden of PAHs should be evaluated by biomonitoring of 1-OHP in line with other urinary PAHs metabolites (with 2–3 rings) to evaluate recent total exposure to PAHs. Overall, the study suggests implementing a mitigation plan to combat air pollution to provide a cleaner environment for children.
Farming is physically and psychologically hazardous. Farmers face many barriers to help seeking from traditional physical and mental health services; however, improved internet access now provides promising avenues for offering support.
This study aims to co-design with farmers the content and functionality of a website that helps them adopt transferable coping strategies and test its acceptability in the broader farming population.
Research evidence and expert opinions were synthesized to inform key design principles. A total of 18 farmers detailed what they would like from this type of website. Intervention logic and relevant evidence-based strategies were mapped. Website content was drafted and reviewed by 2 independent mental health professionals. A total of 9 farmers provided detailed qualitative feedback on the face validity of the draft content. Subsequently, 9 farmers provided feedback on the website prototype. Following amendments and internal prototype testing and optimization, prototype usability (ie, completion rate) was examined with 157 registered website users who were (105/157, 66.9%) female, aged 21-73 years; 95.5% (149/156) residing in inner regional to very remote Australia, and 68.2% (107/157) “sheep, cattle and/or grain farmers.” Acceptability was examined with a subset of 114 users who rated at least module 1. Interviews with 108 farmers who did not complete all 5 modules helped determine why, and detailed interviews were conducted with 18 purposively sampled users. Updates were then made according to adaptive trial design methodology.
This systematic co-design process resulted in a web-based resource based on acceptance and commitment therapy and designed to overcome barriers to engagement with traditional mental health and well-being strategies—ifarmwell. It was considered an accessible and confidential source of practical and relevant farmer-focused self-help strategies. These strategies were delivered via 5 interactive modules that include written, drawn, and audio- and video-based psychoeducation and exercises, as well as farming-related jokes, metaphors, examples, and imagery. Module 1 included distress screening and information on how to speak to general practitioners about mental health–related concerns (including a personalized conversation script). Modules were completed fortnightly. SMS text messages offered personalized support and reminders. Qualitative interviews and star ratings demonstrated high module acceptability (average 4.06/5 rating) and suggested that additional reminders, higher quality audio recordings, and shorter modules would be useful. Approximately 37.1% (52/140) of users who started module 1 completed all modules, with too busy or not got to it yet being the main reason for non-completion, and previous module acceptability not predicting subsequent module completion.
Sequential integration of research evidence, expert knowledge, and farmers’ preferences in the co-design process allowed for the development of a self-help intervention that focused on important intervention targets and was acceptable to this difficult-to-engage group.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000506392; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=372526
The Social Brain Toolkit, conceived and developed in partnership with stakeholders, is a novel suite of web-based communication interventions for people with brain injury and their communication partners. To support effective implementation, the developers of the Social Brain Toolkit have collaborated with people with brain injury, communication partners, clinicians, and individuals with digital health implementation experience to coproduce new implementation knowledge. In recognition of the equal value of experiential and academic knowledge, both types of knowledge are included in this study protocol, with input from stakeholder coauthors.
This study aims to collaborate with stakeholders to prioritize theoretically based implementation targets for the Social Brain Toolkit, understand the nature of these priorities, and develop targeted implementation strategies to address these priorities, in order to support the Social Brain Toolkit’s implementation.
Theoretically underpinned by the Nonadoption, Abandonment, Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability (NASSS) framework of digital health implementation, a maximum variation sample (N=35) of stakeholders coproduced knowledge of the implementation of the Social Brain Toolkit. People with brain injury (n=10), communication partners (n=11), and clinicians (n=5) participated in an initial web-based prioritization survey based on the NASSS framework. Survey completion was facilitated by plain English explanations and accessible captioned videos developed through 3 rounds of piloting. A speech-language pathologist also assisted stakeholders with brain injury to participate in the survey via video teleconference. Participants subsequently elaborated on their identified priorities via 7 web-based focus groups, in which researchers and stakeholders exchanged stakeholder perspectives and research evidence from a concurrent systematic review. Stakeholders were supported to engage in focus groups through the use of visual supports and plain English explanations. Additionally, individuals with experience in digital health implementation (n=9) responded to the prioritization survey questions via individual interview. The results will be deductively analyzed in relation to the NASSS framework in a coauthorship process with people with brain injury, communication partners, and clinicians.
Ethical approval was received from the University of Technology Sydney Health and Medical Research Ethics Committee (ETH20-5466) on December 15, 2020. Data were collected from April 13 to November 18, 2021. Data analysis is currently underway, with results expected for publication in mid-2022.
In this study, researchers supported individuals with living experience of acquired brain injury, of communicating with or clinically supporting someone post injury, and of digital health implementation, to directly access and leverage the latest implementation research evidence and theory. With this support, stakeholders were able to prioritize implementation research targets, develop targeted implementation solutions, and coauthor and publish new implementation findings. The results will be used to optimize the implementation of 3 real-world, evidence-based interventions and thus improve the outcomes of people with brain injury and their communication partners.
International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID)
This paper outlines an analysis of using Scenario-Based-Training (SBT) to change officer Personal Safety Training (PST) based on existing research evidence and reflections from supporting a National Police Agency attempting to change PST practice. SBT is interrogated in light of its underlying assumptions and situated within the ambiguities, tensions and compromises inherent within police training cultures. Using Windschitl’s framework of conceptual, pedagogical, cultural, and political dilemmas this paper analyses the forces impacting using SBT to change PST. An alternative agenda for change is presented to develop skilled officers and trainers equipped with innovative pedagogies to ‘re-culture’ PST.
This paper reports on a professional learning (PL) project conducted over one year at a senior secondary school in New Zealand. Subject teachers volunteered to work with one another and a facilitator to identify the linguistic demands of their subjects, adapt teaching materials, and try out teaching approaches congruent with research evidence about teaching emergent bilingual (EB) learners. This paper explores cases of subject-specific partnerships and how participants’ responses to the PL appeared to impact their existing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The PL sessions were facilitated through audio-recorded Zoom meetings. A thematic analysis was conducted, and the findings were analysed using an adaptation of Davison’s (2006) framework to map how participants engaged with the PL and collaborated with one another on new pedagogies. The study suggests that these teachers accommodated linguistic teaching approaches, but their adaptation to language PCK may have remained at a compliant level.