Advanced energy conversion and storage systems have attracted much attention in recent decades due to the increasing demand for energy and the environmental impacts of non-sustainable energy resources [...]
Intrinsically conducting polymers constituting a subclass of macromolecules, as well as a still growing family of large, conjugated molecules, oligomers, and polymers, have attracted research interest for the recent decades. Closely corresponding to the fascination of these materials, combining typical properties of organic polymers and metallic materials, numerous applications have been suggested, explored, and sometimes transferred into products. In electrochemistry, they have been used in various functions beyond the initially proposed and obvious application as active masses in devices for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. This perspective contribution wraps up basic facts that are necessary to understand the behavior and properties of the oligo and polymers and their behavior in electrochemical cells for energy conversion by electrode reactions and associated energy storage. Representative examples are presented and discussed, and an overview of the state of research and development is provided. Particular attention is paid to stability and related aspects of practical importance. Future trends and perspectives are indicated.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with mono or few layers have wide application prospects, including electronic, optoelectronic, and interface functional coatings in addition to energy conversion and storage applications. However, the exfoliation of such materials is still challenging due to their low yield, high cost, and poor ecological safety in preparation. Herein, a safe and efficient solid suspension-improving method was proposed to exfoliate hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (hBNNSs) in a large yield. The method entails adding a permeation barrier layer in the solvothermal kettle, thus prolonging the contact time between the solvent and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanosheetand improving the stripping efficiency without the need for mechanical agitation. In addition, the proposed method selectively utilizes a matching solvent that can reduce the stripping energy of the material and employs a high-temperature steam shearing process. Compared with other methods, the exfoliating yield of hBNNSs is up to 42.3% at 150°C for 12 h, and the strategy is applicable to other 2D materials. In application, the ionic conductivity of a PEO/hBNNSs composite electrolytes reached 2.18×10−4 S cm−1 at 60°C. Overall, a versatile and effective method for stripping 2D materials in addition to a new safe energy management strategy were provided.
AbstractSince the 1960s, a new class of Si-based advanced ceramics called polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) has been widely reported because of their unique capabilities to produce various ceramic materials (e.g., ceramic fibers, ceramic matrix composites, foams, films, and coatings) and their versatile applications. Particularly, due to their promising structural and functional properties for energy conversion and storage, the applications of PDCs in these fields have attracted much attention in recent years. This review highlights the recent progress in the PDC field with the focus on energy conversion and storage applications. Firstly, a brief introduction of the Si-based polymer-derived ceramics in terms of synthesis, processing, and microstructure characterization is provided, followed by a summary of PDCs used in energy conversion systems (mainly in gas turbine engines), including fundamentals and material issues, ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fibers, thermal and environmental barrier coatings, as well as high-temperature sensors. Subsequently, applications of PDCs in the field of energy storage are reviewed with a strong focus on anode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. The possible applications of the PDCs in Li-S batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells are discussed as well. Finally, a summary of the reported applications and perspectives for future research with PDCs are presented.