Critically Ill Patients
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2021 ◽  
Abdulrahman Alshaya ◽  
Hayaa Alyahya ◽  
Reema Alzoman ◽  
Rawa Faden ◽  
Omar Alshaya ◽  

Abstract Background: Patients admitted with neurocritical illness are presumed to be at high risk for venothromboembolism (VTE). The administration of chemical and/or mechanical VTE prophylaxis is a common practice in critically ill patients. Recent data did not show a significant difference in the incidence of VTE between chemical compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients with limited data in neurocritically ill population. The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of VTE between chemical alone compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. This was a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary teaching hospital. Data were obtained from electronic medical records for all patients admitted with neurocritical illness from 1/1/2016 to 1/12/2020. Patients were excluded if they did not receive VTE prophylaxis during admission or were younger than 18 YO. Major outcomes were symptomatic VTE based on clinical and radiological findings, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS. Minor outcomes included severe or life-threatening bleeding based on GUSTO criteria, and mortality at 28-days. Results: Two hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. Patients did not have any significant differences in their baseline characteristics. The incidence of VTE was not different between chemical only compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis groups (19/166 (11.3%) vs 7/46 (15.2%); P=0.49. No difference between groups in their ICU LOS 6 [3 – 16.2] vs 6.5 [3 – 19]; P=0.52, nor their mortality (18/166 (10.7%) vs 3/46 (6.5%); P=0.38, respectively. Less bleeding events were seen in the chemical prophylaxis group compared to the combined VTE prophylaxis group (19/166 (11.3%) vs 12/46 (26.1%); P= 0.013. Conclusion: Our findings observed no difference between the administration of chemical prophylaxis alone compared to combined VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. More data are needed to confirm this finding with more robust methodology.

2021 ◽  
Gen Aikawa ◽  
Akira Ouchi ◽  
Hideaki Sakuramoto ◽  
Tetsuya Hoshino ◽  
Yuki Enomoto ◽  

Abstract Constipation and diarrhea are both associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Although constipation and diarrhea are closely related, few studies have examined them simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to describe patient defecation status after intensive care unit (ICU) admission and determine the association of early-onset constipation and diarrhea after ICU admission with outcomes for critically ill ventilated patients. Critically ill patients were retrospectively investigated and their defecation status was assessed during the first week after admission. The patients were divided into three groups: normal defecation, constipation, and diarrhea, and multiple comparison tests were performed. Additionally, multivariable analysis was performed for mortality and length of stay. Of the 85 critically ill ventilated patients, 47 (55%) experienced constipation, and 12 (14%) experienced diarrhea during the first week of ICU admission. Patients with normal defecation and diarrhea increased from the fourth and fifth day of ICU admission. Diarrhea was significantly associated with the length of ICU stay (B=7.534, 95% confidence interval: 0.116-14.951). Early-onset constipation and diarrhea were common in critically ill ventilated patients, and early-onset diarrhea was associated with the length of ICU stay. Prevention of constipation and diarrhea before the fifth day of ICU admission is essential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Yu-Cheng Wu ◽  
Li-Ting Wong ◽  
Chieh-Liang Wu ◽  
Wen-Cheng Chao

Abstract Background The long-term outcome is an essential issue in critically ill patients, and the identification of early determinant is needed for risk stratification of the long-term outcome. In the present study, we investigate the association between culture positivity during admission and long-term outcome in critically ill surgical patients. Methods We linked the 2015–2019 critical care database at Taichung Veterans General Hospital with the nationwide death registration files in Taiwan. We described the long-term mortality and proportion of culture positivity among enrolled subjects. We used a log-rank test to estimate survival curves between patients with and without positive cultures and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total of 6748 critically ill patients were enrolled, and 32.5% (2196/6749) of them died during the follow-up period, with the overall follow-up duration was 1.8 ± 1.4 years. We found that 31.4% (2122/6748) of critically ill patients had at least one positive culture during the index admission, and the number of patients with positive culture in the blood, respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue and abdomen were 417, 1702, 554, 194 and 139, respectively. We found that a positive culture from any sites was independently associated with high long-term mortality (aHR 1.579, 95% CI 1.422–1.754) after adjusting relevant covariates, including age, sex, body-mass index, comorbidities, severity score, shock, early fluid overload, receiving mechanical ventilation and the need of renal replacement therapy for critical illness. Conclusions We linked two databases to identify that a positive culture during admission was independently correlated with increased long-term mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Our findings highlight the need for vigilance among patients with a positive culture during admission, and more studies are warranted to validate our findings and to clarify underlying mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Helen Teklie ◽  
Hywet Engida ◽  
Birhanu Melaku ◽  
Abdata Workina

Abstract Background The transfer time for critically ill patients from the emergency department (ED) to the Intensive care unit (ICU) must be minimal; however, some factors prolong the transfer time, which may delay intensive care treatment and adversely affect the patient’s outcome. Purpose To identify factors affecting intensive care unit admission of critically ill patients from the emergency department. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study design was conducted from January 13 to April 12, 2020, at the emergency department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. All critically ill patients who need intensive care unit admission during the study period were included in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was adapted from similar studies. The data were collected by chart review and observation. Then checked data were entered into Epi-data version 4.1 and cleaned data was exported to SPSS Version 25 for analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Result From the total of 102 critically ill patients who need ICU admission 84.3% of them had prolonged lengths of ED stay. The median length of ED stay was 13.5 h with an IQR of 7–25.5 h. The most common reasons for delayed ICU admission were shortage of ICU beds 56 (65.1%) and delays in radiological examination results 13(15.1%). On multivariate logistic regression p < 0.05 male gender (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI: (0.044, 0.693)) and shortage of ICU bed (AOR = 0.022, 95% CI: (0.002, 0.201)) were found to have a significant association with delayed intensive care unit admission. Conclusion there was a delay in ICU admission of critically ill patients from the ED. Shortage of ICU bed and delay in radiological investigation results were the reasons for the prolonged ED stay.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11473
Dimitra A. Vassiliadi ◽  
Alice G. Vassiliou ◽  
Ioannis Ilias ◽  
Stylianos Tsagarakis ◽  
Anastasia Kotanidou ◽  

The hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis was described as the principal component of the stress response 85 years ago, along with the acute-phase reaction, and the defense response at the tissue level. The orchestration of these processes is essential since systemic inflammation is a double-edged sword; whereas inflammation that is timely and of appropriate magnitude is beneficial, exuberant systemic inflammation incites tissue damage with potentially devastating consequences. Apart from its beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects, cortisol exerts a significant immunoregulatory role, a major attribute being that it restrains the excessive inflammatory reaction, thereby preventing unwanted tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the role of the HPA axis in the normal stress response and in critical illness, especially in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, a chapter will be dedicated to the findings from clinical studies in critical illness and COVID-19 on the expression of the mediator of glucocorticoid actions, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR).

Encyclopedia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 1058-1075
Phil B. Tsai ◽  
Hsiang-Ning Luk

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. With limited supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), barrier systems were developed to help protect health care providers during tracheal intubation. The video intubating stylet shows promise to become the preferred intubation device in conjunction with plastic sheet barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lucyna Płaszewska-Żywko ◽  
Aurelia Sega ◽  
Agnieszka Bukowa ◽  
Katarzyna Wojnar-Gruszka ◽  
Marcelina Podstawa ◽  

In critically ill patients, normal eye protection mechanisms, such as tear production, blinking, and keeping the eye closed, are impaired. In addition, many other factors related to patients’ severe condition and treatment contribute to ocular surface disease. Reducing risk factors and proper eye care can have a significant impact on incidences of eye complications and patient quality of life after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for ocular complication, especially those related to nursing care. The study was conducted in the ICU of a university hospital. Methods for estimating and analyzing medical records were used. The patient’s evaluation sheet covering 12 categories of risk factors for eye complications was worked out. The study group included 76 patients (34 patients with injuries and 42 without injuries). The Shapiro–Wilk test, the Spearman’s rank correlation test, the Mann–Whitney U test and the Friedman’s ANOVA test were used. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. The most important risk factors for eye complications in the study group were: lagophthalmos (p < 0.001), sedation (p < 0.01), use of some cardiological drugs and antibiotics (p < 0.01), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05), use of an open suctioning system (p < 0.01), presence of injuries (p < 0.01) including craniofacial trauma (p < 0.001), high level of care intensity (p < 0.01), failure to follow eye care protocol (p < 0.001), length of hospitalization at the ICU (p < 0.001), and the frequency of ophthalmological consultations (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the incidence of these complications and the age and gender of the patients. The exposure of critically ill patients to eye complications was high. It is necessary to disseminate protocols and guidelines for eye care in ICU patients to reduce the risk factors.

Amira kassem ◽  
Islam Ahmed ◽  
Gamal Omran ◽  
Mohamed Megahed ◽  
Tamer Habib

Introduction: In critically ill patients, Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) remains the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities in critical care setting and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress state. Recent research raised the potential efficacy of high dose intravenous ascorbic acid in critically ill patients. Objective: The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of high dose intravenous ascorbic acid (VC) as a targeted therapy for TRALI in terms of serum proinflammatory (interleukin-8, interleukin-1β, C-reactive protein), anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10), oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde) markers, and plasma VC levels. Secondary outcomes were oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio), vasopressor use, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, 7-days mortality and 28-days mortality. Methods: Eighty critically ill patients with TRALI (n=80) were randomized to receive 2.5gm/6hr intravenous vitamin C for 96 hours (ASTRALI group) or placebo. Patients were followed-up to measure the outcomes initially (T0) and at the end of treatment (T96). Results: When compared to control group, ASTRALI group at T96, showed significantly higher median of interleukin-10 (31.6 ± 25.8 Vs. 17.7 ± 12.0 pg/mL, p<0.0001) levels and superoxide dismutase (12876 ± 4627 U/L Vs. 5895 ± 6632 U/L, p<0.0001) activities, lower median C-reactive protein (76 ± 50 Vs. 89 ± 56 mg/L, p=0.033), interleukin-8 (11.8 ± 7.3, 35.5 ± 19.8 pg/mL, p<0.0001), and malondialdehyde (0.197 ± 0.034 Vs. 0.234 ± 0.074 µM/L, p=0.002) levels. Conclusion: High dose ascorbic acid was associated with significantly reduced oxidative stress, reduced pro-inflammatory markers except IL-1β, elevated anti-inflammatory marker, and elevated plasma VC levels

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1086
Ángel Estella ◽  
Mª Luisa Cantón ◽  
Laura Muñoz ◽  
Isabel Rodriguez Higueras ◽  
María Recuerda Núñez ◽  

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the percentage of patients admitted to the ICU having received the vaccine against COVID-19, to describe the clinical profile of vaccinated patients admitted to the ICU, and to assess the humoral immune response to vaccination. Methods: In this multicenter prospective descriptive cohort study, consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who received at least one dose of the SARS-CoV2 vaccine were included. The time of study was from 1 July to 10 August of 2021. Results: Of the 94 consecutive patients from seven Andalusian ICUs admitted during the time of study, 50 (53.2%) received at least one dose of anti SARS-CoV2 vaccine. No patient was admitted having previously had SARS-CoV2 infection. The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was the most frequently identified, in 80.76% of cases. Patients with a complete vaccination with non-optimal antibody levels were immunocompromised. Fifteen patients were admitted to the ICU with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) without having completed their vaccination; the clinical profile was younger and with less comorbidities compared to patients with full vaccination. There were no differences in severity of ARDS. Conclusions: Most of the patients who were admitted to the ICU having received a dose of the vaccine were not optimally vaccinated; fully vaccinated patients who did not obtain optimal serum antibody levels were patients considered immunocompromised.

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