Background: Patients after cardiovascular surgery, requiring renal replacement therapy, can benefit from adequate non-heparin circuit anticoagulation. Simplified regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) protocol proposes the use of citric acid dextrose formula A (ACD-A) during post-dilutional continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with standard bicarbonate buffered calcium containing replacement solution. Citrate accumulation diagnosed upon total to ionized calcium ratio (tCa/iCa) and low ionized calcium (iCa) are considered as the biggest risks related to regional citrate accumulation. Methods: This prospective observational case-control study evaluated electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in cardiovascular surgery patients treated with post-dilution CVVH with a simplified RCA protocol with ACD-A. In total, 50 consecutive cardiovascular surgery patients were evaluated. Base excess, pH, bicarbonate, lactate, Na+, Cl-, Mg++, and inorganic phosphate concentrations, the total to ionized calcium ratio (tCa/iCa), and high anion gap metabolic acidosis were assessed during haemofiltration treatment in survivors and non-survivors. Results: Thirty-three (66%) patients died. The therapies were very well balanced in sodium and chloride homeostasis. The lactate concentration and anion gap decreased during CVVH sessions lasting longer than 72 hours, but no inter-group difference was observed. The tCa/iCa ratio exceeded 4.5% and was significantly higher in non-survivors (p=0.037). Initial lactate concentration did not correlate with tCa/iCa ratio during haemofiltration. Magnesium and phosphate concentrations decreased and additional supplementation with magnesium was necessary. The magnesium concentration was lower in the non-survivors. Conclusions: The incidence of citrate accumulation exceeded 4% and was significantly higher in non-survivors. Supplementation with magnesium and phosphate ions is needed in CVVH with RCA.
Background: Current guidelines recommend the monitoring of anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) levels to avoid an accumulation of low-molecular-weight heparins in patients with acute kidney injury, but there is no evidence on how to proceed with such monitoring during continuous renal replacement therapy. Against this background, we investigated the potential accumulation of enoxaparin administered subcutaneously for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in critically ill patients during continuous renal replacement therapy covered by regional citrate anticoagulation. Methods: Anti-Xa levels were measured at baseline (≤12 h before renal replacement therapy) and on three consecutive days (A to C) when enoxaparin had reached trough levels. Supplementary testing included modified assays of rotational thromboelastometry known to be highly sensitive for low-molecular-weight heparins. Results: The 16 men and 13 women included were adults comparable in age, body mass index, thromboembolism risk assessment, and clinical severity of the disease. Throughout the four examinations, the median trough levels of anti-Xa remained below the detection limit of the test (<0.1 IU mL−1), with interquartile ranges of <0.1 to 0.14 IU mL−1 at baseline and <0.1 to 0.16 IU mL−1 on days A/B/C. All rotational thromboelastometry parameters of clot initiation and clot formation dynamics did not significantly change from baseline to day C. Conclusions: Neither anti-Xa levels nor modified assays of rotational thromboelastometry revealed any accumulation of enoxaparin administered for thromboprophylaxis during continuous renal replacement therapy covered by regional citrate anticoagulation. Although generally recommended in patients with acute kidney injury, monitoring of anti-Xa levels should be questioned in this defined setting.
Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is an important local anticoagulation method during bedside continuous renal replacement therapy. To improve patient safety and achieve computer assisted dose monitoring and control, we took intensive care units patients into cohort and aiming at developing a data-driven machine learning model to give early warning of citric acid overdose and provide adjustment suggestions on citrate pumping rate and 10% calcium gluconate input rate for RCA treatment.
Patient age, gender, pumped citric acid dose value, 5% NaHCO3 solvent, replacement fluid solvent, body temperature value, and replacement fluid PH value as clinical features, models attempted to classify patients who received regional citrate anticoagulation into correct outcome category. Four models, Adaboost, XGBoost, support vector machine (SVM) and shallow neural network, were compared on the performance of predicting outcomes. Prediction results were evaluated using accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score.
For classifying patients at the early stages of citric acid treatment, the accuracy of neutral networks model is higher than Adaboost, XGBoost and SVM, the F1-score of shallow neutral networks (90.77%) is overall outperformed than other models (88.40%, 82.17% and 88.96% for Adaboost, XGBoost and SVM). Extended experiment and validation were further conducted using the MIMIC-III database, the F1-scores for shallow neutral networks, Adaboost, XGBoost and SVM are 80.00%, 80.46%, 80.37% and 78.90%, the AUCs are 0.8638, 0.8086, 0.8466 and 0.7919 respectively.
The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility and performance of machine learning methods for monitoring and adjusting local regional citrate anticoagulation, and further provide decision-making recommendations to clinicians point-of-care.