Multicenter studies involving patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with the disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) and treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing countries are scarce. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile, clinical picture, risk factors for mortality, and outcomes of critically ill patients with AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-RRT) and with COVID-19 in the megalopolis of São Paulo, Brazil.
This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in the intensive care units of 13 public and private hospitals in the metropolitan region of the municipality of São Paulo. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit, aged ≥ 18 years, and treated with RRT due to COVID-19-associated AKI were included.
The study group consisted of 375 patients (age 64.1 years, 68.8% male). Most (62.1%) had two or more comorbidities: 68.8%, arterial hypertension; 45.3%, diabetes; 36.3%, anemia; 30.9%, obesity; 18.7%, chronic kidney disease; 15.7%, coronary artery disease; 10.4%, heart failure; and 8.5%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Death occurred in 72.5% of the study population (272 patients). Among the 103 survivors, 22.3% (23 patients) were discharged on RRT. In a multiple regression analysis, the independent factors associated with death were the number of organ dysfunctions at admission and RRT efficiency.
AKI-RRT associated with COVID-19 occurred in patients with an elevated burden of comorbidities and was associated with high mortality (72.5%). The number of organ dysfunctions during hospitalization and RRT efficiency were independent factors associated with mortality. A meaningful portion of survivors was discharged while dependent on RRT (22.3%).
Real-world evidence about mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) use has been limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly regarding its association with hard renal outcomes.
In this retrospective cohort study, adult chronic kidney disease outpatients referred to the department of nephrology at an academic hospital between January 2005 and December 2018 were analyzed. The main inclusion criteria were estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥10 and <60 mL/min per 1.73 m
and follow-up ≥90 days. The exposure of interest was MRA use, defined as the administration of spironolactone, eplerenone, or potassium canrenoate. The primary outcome was renal replacement therapy initiation, defined as the initiation of chronic hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation. A marginal structural model using inverse probability of weighting was applied to account for potential time-varying confounders.
Among a total of 3195 patients, the median age and estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline were 66 years and 38.4 mL/min per 1.73 m
, respectively. During follow-up (median, 5.9 years), 770 patients received MRAs, 211 died, and 478 started renal replacement therapy. In an inverse probability of weighting-weighted pooled logistic regression model, MRA use was significantly associated with a 28%-lower rate of renal replacement therapy initiation (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.53–0.98]). The association between MRA use and renal replacement therapy initiation was dose-dependent (
for trend <0.01) and consistent across patient subgroups. The incidence of hyperkalemia (>5.5 mEq/L) was somewhat higher in MRA users but not significant (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.88–1.48]).
MRA users showed a better renal prognosis across various chronic kidney disease subgroups in a real-world chronic kidney disease population.
Methods of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients include dedicated central venous cannula (CVC) (vCRRT), in-series with filter connected to ECMO circuit (eCRRT) or in-line with haemodiafilter incorporated within ECMO circuit. We assessed the efficacy and safety of eCRRT versus vCRRT in 20 ECMO-CRRT patients. Average filter lifespan was 42 vs 28 hours and filter runs completing 72hours were 40% vs 13.8% (eCRRT vs vCRRT, respectively). One incidence of ECMO circuit air embolus occurred (vCRRT). eCRRT achieved adequate filtration and increased filter lifespan, and has become our default for ECMO-CRRT if a pre-existing dialysis CVC is not present.
Chronic kidney disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages but constitutes a severe burden for patients and causes major healthcare systems costs worldwide. While models for assessing the cost-effectiveness of screening were proposed in the past, they often presented only a limited view. This study aimed to develop a simulation-based German Albuminuria Screening Model (S-GASM) and present some initial applications.
The model consists of an individual-based simulation of disease progression, considering age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, and quality of life, furthermore, costs of testing, therapy, and renal replacement therapy with parameters based on published evidence. Selected screening scenarios were compared in a cost-effectiveness analysis.
Compared to no testing, a simulation of 10 million individuals with a current age distribution of the adult German population and a follow-up until death or the age of 90 shows that a testing of all individuals with diabetes every two years leads to a reduction of the lifetime prevalence of renal replacement therapy from 2.5% to 2.3%. The undiscounted costs of this intervention would be 1164.10 € / QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Considering saved costs for renal replacement therapy, the overall undiscounted costs would be—12581.95 € / QALY. Testing all individuals with diabetes or hypertension and screening the general population reduced the lifetime prevalence even further (to 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively). Both scenarios were cost-saving (undiscounted, - 7127.10 €/QALY and—5439.23 €/QALY).
The S-GASM can be used for the comparison of various albuminuria testing strategies. The exemplary analysis demonstrates cost savings through albuminuria testing for individuals with diabetes, diabetes or hypertension, and for population-wide screening.