Multiple Sclerosis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. S560
S. Małgorzewicz ◽  
N. Mogiłko

2021 ◽  
Vol 209 (12) ◽  
pp. 933-935
Olympia Evagorou ◽  
Aikaterini Arvaniti ◽  
Christina Angelopoulou ◽  
Eleni Mavraki ◽  
Georgios Mikellides ◽  

2021 ◽  
Benjamin Schultz ◽  
Zaher Joukhadar ◽  
Maria del Mar Quiroga ◽  
Usha Nattala ◽  
Gustavo Noffs ◽  

Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases often affect speech. Speech acoustics can be used as objective clinical markers of pathology. Previous investigations of pathological speech have primarily compared controls with one specific condition and excluded comorbidities. We broaden the utility of speech markers by examining how multiple acoustic features can delineate diseases. We used supervised machine learning with gradient boosting (CatBoost) to differentiate healthy speech and speech from people with multiple sclerosis or Friedreich ataxia. Participants performed a diadochokinetic task where they repeated alternating syllables. We extracted 74 spectral and temporal prosodic features from the speech recordings, which were subjected to machine learning. Results showed that Friedreich ataxia, multiple sclerosis and healthy controls were all identified with high accuracy (over 82%). Twenty-one acoustic features were strong markers of neurodegenerative diseases, falling under the categories of spectral qualia, spectral power, and speech rate. We demonstrated that speech markers can delineate neurodegenerative diseases and distinguish healthy speech from pathological speech with high accuracy. Findings emphasize the importance of examining speech outcomes when assessing indicators of neurodegenerative disease. We propose large-scale initiatives to broaden the scope for differentiating other neurological diseases and affective disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 130-142
Cristian Campagnaro ◽  
Nicolò Di Prima ◽  
Sara Ceraolo

This article examines the topic of participatory design processes (co‐design, co‐creativity, co‐creation, and co‐production) as tools to promote models of inclusion that benefit people experiencing marginality, and as means to solicit the public dimension of the spaces in which they live and where they have access to their health and welfare services. The topic is addressed through four case studies drawn from the experience of participatory action research aiming at social inclusion and cohesion through an approach based on design anthropology. Following Jones and VanPatter’s (2009) four design domains (DD), the projects discussed in this article are the following: participatory design of devices for people with multiple sclerosis (DD 1.0); participatory renovation of shelters for homeless people (DD 2.0); design and craft led lab aiming at social inclusion (DD 3.0); and innovation of public services for a city homeless population (DD 4.0). All these projects are driven by stakeholders’ demands for a transformation that improves the quality of users’ lives, the quality of caring services, and that they modify, temporarily or permanently, the venues where they take place. In order to support and facilitate this “desire for change,” the projects are based on wide participation and collaboration between many different stakeholders in every phase of their design processes. Methods, tools, and results will be analysed from the points of view of both users (beneficiaries and social operators/caregivers) and designers. Furthermore, the interaction between spaces, co‐design processes, and attendees will be investigated to determine how they contribute to turning those venues into citizenship environments, permeated with greater care and attention.

Luis Andreu-Caravaca ◽  
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo ◽  
Linda H. Chung ◽  
Pedro Manonelles ◽  
Joao Paulo Vilas Boas ◽  

This study aimed to analyze the benefits of a lower-limb fast-velocity concentric resistance training on rate of force development, mobility, and quality of life in people with Multiple Sclerosis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 30 people with Multiple Sclerosis, who were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=18) or a control (n=12) group. The experimental group carried out 10-weeks of fast-velocity concentric resistance training, while the control group did not perform any intervention. Early and late rate of force development during knee extension in both legs, sit-to-stand and Timed Up and Go tests and quality life questionnaire were evaluated before and after intervention. The training program evoked an increase in early rate of force development in experimental group (0-30; Rightleg: 63.9%, p<0.001;ES=-1.4; Leftleg: 52.7%, p<0.001;ES=-1.0) compared to control group (showed modest increases). Furthermore, experimental group improved mobility after training (Sit-to-stand: 22.2%, p<0.001;ES=1.0; Timed Up and Go Test: 10.1%, p<0.001;ES=1.1) and increased the perception of quality of life after training, while control showed no changes. The fast-velocity concentric resistance training has the potential to improve early rate of force development and mobility after 10-weeks of training. In addition, the increase in self-perceived quality of life following this training modality demonstrates promising results in the Multiple Sclerosis population.

Radiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Claudio Cordani ◽  
Paolo Preziosa ◽  
Paola Valsasina ◽  
Alessandro Meani ◽  
Elisabetta Pagani ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e1118
Afagh Garjani ◽  
Rodden M. Middleton ◽  
Richard Nicholas ◽  
Nikos Evangelou

Background and ObjectivesTo understand the course of recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine its predictors, including patients' pre–COVID-19 physical and mental health status.MethodsThis prospective and longitudinal cohort study recruited patients with MS who reported COVID-19 from March 17, 2020, to March 19, 2021, as part of the United Kingdom MS Register (UKMSR) COVID-19 study. Participants used online questionnaires to regularly update their COVID-19 symptoms, recovery status, and duration of symptoms for those who fully recovered. Questionnaires were date stamped for estimation of COVID-19 symptom duration for those who had not recovered at their last follow-up. The UKMSR holds demographic and up-to-date clinical data on participants as well as their web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale (web-EDSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores. The association between these factors and recovery from COVID-19 was assessed using multivariable Cox regression analysis.ResultsOf the 7,977 patients with MS who participated in the UKMSR COVID-19 study, 599 reported COVID-19 and prospectively updated their recovery status. Twenty-eight hospitalized participants were excluded. At least 165 participants (29.7%) had long-standing COVID-19 symptoms for ≥4 weeks and 69 (12.4%) for ≥12 weeks. Participants with pre–COVID-19 web-EDSS scores ≥7, participants with probable anxiety and/or depression (HADS scores ≥11) before COVID-19 onset, and women were less likely to report recovery from COVID-19.DiscussionPatients with MS are affected by postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Preexisting severe neurologic impairment or mental health problems appear to increase this risk. These findings can have implications in tailoring their post–COVID-19 rehabilitation.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260384
Zahra Zangeneh ◽  
Ahya Abdi-Ali ◽  
Kianoosh Khamooshian ◽  
Amirhoushang Alvandi ◽  
Ramin Abiri

Background Microorganisms in oral cavity are called oral microbiota, while microbiome consists of total genome content of microorganisms in a host. Interaction between host and microorganisms is important in nervous system development and nervous diseases such as Autism, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Bacterial infections, as an environmental factor in MS pathogenesis play role in T helper 17(Th17) increase and it enhancing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interlukin-21(IL-21), IL-17 and IL -22. Oral microbiota consists diverse populations of cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is an acceptable method for identification of uncultivable bacteria. In this study, we compared the bacterial population diversity in the oral cavity between MS and healthy people. Methods From October to March 2019, samples were taken at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences’ MS patients center. A total of 30 samples were taken from MS patients and another 30 samples were taken from healthy people. Phenotypic tests were used to identify bacteria after pure cultures were obtained. DNA was extracted from 1 mL of saliva, and PCR products produced with primers were electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels. Results The genera Staphylococcus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella, Propionibacterium and uncultivable bacteria with accession number MW880919-25, JQ477416.1, KF074888.1 and several other un-culturable strains were significantly more abundant in the MS group while Lactobacillus and Peptostreptococcus were more prevalent in the normal healthy group according to logistic regression method. Conclusion Oral micro-organisms may alleviate or exacerbate inflammatory condition which impact MS disease pathogenesis. It may be assumed that controlling oral infections may result in reduction of MS disease progression.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 812
Naeun Yoon ◽  
Ah-Kyung Jang ◽  
Yerim Seo ◽  
Byung Hwa Jung

The metabolomics approach represents the last downstream phenotype and is widely used in clinical studies and drug discovery. In this paper, we outline recent advances in the metabolomics research of autoimmune diseases (ADs) such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MuS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The newly discovered biomarkers and the metabolic mechanism studies for these ADs are described here. In addition, studies elucidating the metabolic mechanisms underlying these ADs are presented. Metabolomics has the potential to contribute to pharmacotherapy personalization; thus, we summarize the biomarker studies performed to predict the personalization of medicine and drug response.

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