The opioid epidemic is a rapidly growing public health concern in the USA, as the number of overdose deaths continues to increase each year. One strategy for combating the rising number of overdoses is through opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs).
To evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative OOPP, with changes in knowledge and attitudes serving as the primary outcome measures.
The OOPP was developed by a group of medical students under guidance from faculty advisors. Training sessions focused on understanding stigmatizing factors of opioid use disorder (OUD), as well as protocols for opioid overdose reversal through naloxone administration. Pre- and post-surveys were partially adapted from the opioid overdose attitudes and knowledge scales and administered to all participants. Paired t-tests were conducted to assess differences between pre- and post-surveys.
A total of 440 individuals participated in the training; 381 completed all or the majority of the survey. Participants came from a diverse set of backgrounds, ages, and experiences. All three knowledge questions showed significant improvements. For attitude questions, significant improvements were found in all three questions evaluating confidence, two of three questions assessing attitudes towards overdose reversal, and four of five questions evaluating stigma and attitudes towards individuals with OUD.
Our innovative OOPP was effective not only in increasing knowledge but also in improving attitudes towards overdose reversal and reducing stigma towards individuals with OUD. Given the strong improvements in attitudes towards those with OUD, efforts should be made to incorporate the unique focus on biopsychosocial and sociohistorical components into future OOPPs.
The effectiveness of blood flow restriction training (BFR) in elderly with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is comparable to performing high-intensity protocols (70 to 80% of 1 RM [repetition maximum]) that are known to be effective for improving the muscle strength of knee extensors, with the advantage of generating less particular rating of perceived exertion and pain immediately after training. However, despite being a promising alternative, little is known about the best way to apply the BFR, such as level of pressure and combination or not with other therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether different levels of blood flow restriction with low load (BFR + LL) and no load (BFR + rest) are non-inferior to high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE+BFRplacebo) for pain reduction in patients with knee OA.
This clinical trial is a non-inferiority, five-arm, randomized, active-controlled, single trial which will be carried out in 165 patients of both sexes with knee OA, aged 50 years and older. Participants will be randomly allocated into 5 exercise groups (40% of BFR + LL; 80% of BFR + LL; 40% of BFR + rest; 80% BFR + rest, and HIRE+BFR placebo). A mixed linear model will be used to examine the effect of group-by-time interaction on pain intensity on the WOMAC subscale (primary outcome) and on disease severity, physical functional data, balance data, quality of life, global perceived effect scale, and muscle strength (secondary outcomes). Participants will be analyzed for intention-to-treat, and the statistical assessor blinded to the groups. The collection of outcomes 72 h after completion of the 16 weeks of interventions will be the primary measurement point. Follow-up secondary timepoints will be collected at 20, 28, 40, 52, and 64 weeks after the end of interventions, except for pain during the training, which will be measured immediately at the end of each session. Only the comparison of the primary outcome between the HIRE group with each BFR group will be analyzed in the non-inferiority framework, the other comparisons between the BFR groups for the primary outcome, and all secondary outcomes will be interpreted in the superiority framework.
The results of this clinical trial can point out more clearly to ways to optimize the BFR training with the minimum of pain immediately after training, which will allow the offer of an effective and more adherent strengthening training to patients with knee OA.
Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, RBR-93rx9q. Registered on 23 July 2020. Version 1.0.
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the long-term efficacy and clinical outcomes of microcatheter-assisted circumferential trabeculotomy (MCT) in children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study including consecutive children with PCG who underwent MCT with > two years follow up. The primary outcome was surgical success, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 21 mmHg with (qualified) or without (complete) medications, measured at six months, one year, and then annually. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity (VA), refraction, axial length (AXL), complications, reinterventions, and number of medications. Results: Twelve eyes of ten patients were included. In eight children only one eye was affected. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age at surgery was 6.3 ± 4.1 months. The mean postoperative follow-up was 66 ± 35 months. The mean IOP was 34.3 ± 9.6 mmHg preoperatively and 14.6 ± 2.3 mmHg postoperatively at the last visit (p < 0.001). Complete success was achieved at all time points in 10 out of 12 eyes, while 2 eyes had a qualified success. At three years of age, the mean VA of the operated eyes was 0.25 ± 0.12 logMAR, the mean spherical equivalent was −0.78 ± 1.43 diopters, and the mean AXL was 23.78 mm. Transient hyphema was the only complication observed. None of the children required additional glaucoma surgery. Conclusions: Circumferential trabeculotomy for PCG effectively lowers the IOP at more than two years after surgery. Following this procedure, the prognosis for the visual function is good, and the refractive error is low. Postoperative complications were not significant.
Background: Data are limited regarding the incidence of thromboembolism post-hospital discharge among COVID-19 patients. Guidelines addressing the role of extended thromboprophylaxis for COVID-19 patients are limited and conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of post-discharge thromboembolic and bleeding events and the role of thromboprophylaxis among COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of hospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection who were discharged from a University of Colorado Health (UCHealth) hospital between March 1, 2020, and October 31, 2020. The primary outcome was objectively confirmed thromboembolism within 35 days post-discharge. The main secondary outcome was the incidence of bleeding events within 35 days post-discharge. Outcomes were compared between those who received extended prophylaxis and those who did not. Results: A total of 1171 patients met the study criteria. A total of 13 (1.1%) of patients had a documented thromboembolic event and 10 (0.9%) patients had a documented bleeding event within 35 days post-discharge. None of the 132 patients who received extended prophylaxis had a thromboembolic event compared to 13 of 1039 who did not receive extended prophylaxis (0 and 1.3%, respectively; P = .383). The incidence of bleeding was higher among patients who received extended prophylaxis compared to those who did not (3.0% vs 0.6%, P = .019). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that post-discharge extended prophylaxis may be beneficial for select COVID-19 patients, while carefully weighing the risk of bleeding. Application of our findings may assist institutions in development of thromboprophylaxis protocols for discharged COVID-19 patients.
ObjectiveTo identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- & 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19.Research Design and MethodsWe conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome.ResultsWe analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p < 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (<70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7.ConclusionsHigher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.
Actinic keratoses are a chronic condition in ultraviolet-damaged skin, with a risk of progressing to invasive skin cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive potential of field-directed repetitive daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses. A randomized trial was performed, including 58 patients with ≥5 actinic keratoses on photodamaged facial skin, who received either 5 full-face sessions of daylight photodynamic therapy within a period of 2 years or lesion-directed cryosurgery. Primary outcome was the mean cumulative number of new actinic keratoses developed between visits 2 and 6 (visit 6 being a follow-up). This outcome was lower after daylight photo-dynamic therapy (7.7) compared with cryosurgery (10.2), but the difference did not reach significance (–2.5, 95% confidence interval –6.2 to 1.2; p = 0.18). Several signs of photoageing (fine lines, pigmentation, roughness, erythema, sebaceous gland hyperplasia) were significantly reduced after daylight photodynamic therapy, but not after cryosurgery. Significantly less pain and fewer side-effects were reported during daylight photodynamic therapy than during cryosurgery. This study found that repetitive daylight photodynamic therapy had photo-rejuvenating effects. However, the prevention of actinic keratoses by this therapy could not be proven in a statistically reliable manner.
Status asthmaticus is commonly treated in pediatric patients by using continuous albuterol, which can cause hypokalemia. The primary aim of this study was to determine if serial potassium monitoring is necessary by examining treatment frequency of hypokalemia.
This retrospective analysis was performed in 185 pediatric patients admitted with status asthmaticus requiring continuous albuterol between 2017 and 2019. All patients were placed on intravenous fluids containing potassium. The primary outcome measure was the treatment of hypokalemia in relation to the number of laboratory draws for potassium levels. The secondary outcome measure was hypokalemia frequency and relation to the duration and initial dose of continuous albuterol.
Included were 156 patients with 420 laboratory draws (average, 2.7 per patient) for potassium levels. The median lowest potassium level was 3.40 mmol/L (interquartile range, 3.2–3.7). No correlation was found between initial albuterol dose and lowest potassium level (P = .52). Patients with hypokalemia had a mean albuterol time of 12.32 (SD, 15.76) hours, whereas patients without hypokalemia had a mean albuterol time of 11.50 (SD, 12.53) hours (P = .29). Potassium levels were treated 13 separate times.
The number of laboratory draws for potassium levels was high in our cohort, with few patients receiving treatment for hypokalemia beyond the potassium routinely added to maintenance fluids. Length of time on albuterol and dose of albuterol were not shown to increase the risk of hypokalemia. Serial laboratory measurements may be decreased to potentially reduce health care costs, pain, and anxiety surrounding needlesticks.
Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CO2-Laser Assisted Sclerectomy Surgery (CLASS) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in treating open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in Chinese patients. Methods: This was a retrospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series. All patients from 2016 to 2017 who received CLASS were recruited in this study. The primary outcome was the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and the number of IOP-lowering medications over a 12-month follow-up period. Adverse events were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Results: Data were collected from forty-two eyes of 31 patients. The average preoperative IOP was 31.33 ± 7.60mmHg. The mean percentage of IOP reduction from baseline at postoperative months (POM) 1, 3, 6, 9, and, 12 were 48.1% ± 24.6%, 51.4% ± 19.3%, 51.2% ± 17.2%, 50.9% ± 15.0%, 49.2% ± 16.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001). The number of glaucoma medications decreased from a baseline of 3.02 ± 0.81 to 0.05 ± 0.22, 0.10 ± 0.37, 0.12 ± 0.40, 0.17 ± 0.44, and 0.24 ± 0.58 at POM 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively (all P < 0.001). At POM 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12, complete success rates were 66.7%, 73.8%, 76.2%, 69.1%, and 71.4%, respectively. At POM 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12, qualified success rates were 71.4%, 82.0%, 85.3%, 83.3%, and 90.5%, respectively. Major postoperative complications include peripheral iris synechia, iris incarceration, and anterior chamber shallowing. Conclusions: CLASS with 5-FU shows safety and efficacy for decreasing IOP and the number of IOP-lowering medications over a 12-month follow-up period. It could be an alternative treatment for patients with OAG.
The objectives of the present analyses are to estimate the frequency of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) at admission according to STOPP/START criteria version 2 in older patients hospitalised due to chronic disease exacerbation as well as to identify risk factors associated to the most frequent active principles as potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs).
A multicentre, prospective cohort study including older patients (≥65) hospitalized due to chronic disease exacerbation at the internal medicine or geriatric services of 5 hospitals in Spain between September 2016 and December 2018 was conducted. Demographic and clinical data was collected, and a medication review process using STOPP/START criteria version 2 was performed, considering both PIMs and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). Primary outcome was defined as the presence of any most frequent principles as PIMs, and secondary outcomes were the frequency of any PIM and PPO. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted on all outcomes and multilevel logistic regression analysis, stratified by participating centre, was performed on the primary outcome.
A total of 740 patients were included (mean age 84.1, 53.2% females), 93.8% of them presenting polypharmacy, with a median of 10 chronic prescriptions. Among all, 603 (81.5%) patients presented at least one PIP, 542 (73.2%) any PIM and 263 (35.5%) any PPO. Drugs prescribed without an evidence-based clinical indication were the most frequent PIM (33.8% of patients); vitamin D supplement in older people who are housebound or experiencing falls or with osteopenia was the most frequent PPO (10.3%). The most frequent active principles as PIMs were proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs), present in 345 (46.6%) patients. This outcome was found significantly associated with age, polypharmacy and essential tremor in an explanatory model with 71% AUC.
PIMs at admission are highly prevalent in these patients, especially those involving PPIs or BZDs, which affected almost half of the patients. Therefore, these drugs may be considered as the starting point for medication review and deprescription.
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