high risk population
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Jessica B. Rubin ◽  
Jennifer C. Lai ◽  
Samuel Leonard ◽  
Karen Seal ◽  
Katherine J. Hoggatt ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rrezart Halili ◽  
Jeta Bunjaku ◽  
Bujar Gashi ◽  
Teuta Hoxha ◽  
Agron Kamberi ◽  

Abstract Background Many studies examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within populations using seroprevalence. Healthcare workers are a high-risk population due to patient contact, and studies are needed to examine seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. Our study investigates the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff at primary healthcare institutions in Prishtina, and factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey including SARS-CoV-2 serological testing and questionnaires with primary healthcare workers from primary healthcare facilities in the Prishtina, the capital city of Kosovo. We calculated prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and of self-reported positive PCR test among primary healthcare workers, as well as crude and adjusted ORs for explanatory factors. Results Eighty-three of the healthcare workers (17.47%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies IgG or IgM, while 231 (48.63%) either had antibodies or a previous positive PCR test. Odds of seropositivity were affected by male gender (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20, 3.61), and infected family members (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.25, 5.79) of healthcare workers. Higher education, being part of larger families and having infected family members gave higher odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity. Other healthcare workers had lower odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity than physicians. Conclusion Over 17% of healthcare workers were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and close to half of them were either seropositive or PCR self-reported positive test. Several factors are associated with decreased and increased odds for such outcomes. These findings should be explored further and addressed to Kosovo policy makers, and assist them to intensify vaccination efforts, and maintain control measures until we achieve herd immunity.

2022 ◽  
Iyad Sultan ◽  
Abdelghani Tbakhi ◽  
Osama Abuatta ◽  
Sawsan Mubarak ◽  
Osama Alsmadi ◽  

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the efficacy of 3 COVID-19 vaccines in a population of health care workers at a tertiary cancer center in Amman, Jordan. METHODS: We evaluated the records of 2855 employees who were fully vaccinated with 1 of 3 different vaccines and those of 140 employees who were not vaccinated. We measured the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections that occurred at least 14 days after the second vaccine dose. RESULTS The 100-day cumulative incidence of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections was 19.3% +/- 3.3% for unvaccinated employees and 1.7% +/- 0.27% for fully vaccinated employees. The 100-day cumulative infection rates were 0.7% +/- 0.22% in BNT162b2 vaccine recipients (n = 1714), 3.6% +/- 0.77% in BBIBP-CorV recipients (n = 680), and 2.3% +/- 0.73% in ChAdOx1 recipients (n = 456). We used Cox regression analyses to compare the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the different vaccine recipient groups and found a significantly higher infection risk in BBIBP-CorV (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9 +/- 0.31) and ChAdOx1 recipients (HR = 3.0 +/- 0.41) compared to BNT162b2 recipients (P = .00039 and .0074, respectively). Vaccinated employees who had no previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were at a markedly higher risk for breakthrough infections than those who experienced prior infections (HR = 5.7 +/- 0.73, P = .0178). CONCLUSIONS: Our study offers a real-world example of differential vaccine efficacy among a high-risk population during a national outbreak. We also show the important synergism between a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Syed Muhammad Ishaque ◽  
Muhammad Sadiq Achackzai ◽  
Zia Ud Din ◽  
Shahid Pervez

Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining. Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 How to cite this:Ishaque SM, Achakzai MS, Ziauddin, Pervez S. Correlation of predisposing factors and Esophageal Malignancy in high risk population of Baluchistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Ying Dai ◽  
Weimin Chen ◽  
Xuanfu Xu ◽  
Jianqing Chen ◽  
Wenhui Mo ◽  

Objective. To explore the factors affecting the adenoma risk level in patients with intestinal polyp and association. Methods. The clinical data of 3,911 patients with intestinal polyp treated in our hospital from January 2018 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, all patients accepted the histopathological examination, their risk of suffering from adenoma was evaluated according to the results of pathological diagnosis, and relevant hazard factors affecting adenoma risk level in them were analyzed by multifactor logistic regression analysis. Results. The results of multifactor logistic analysis showed that male gender, age ≥60 years, number of polyps >3, diameter ≥2 cm, onset at colon, and physiologically tubulovillous adenoma were the hazard factors causing high-grade adenoma risk in patients with intestinal polyp. Conclusion. There are many risk factors causing high-grade adenoma in patients with intestinal polyp, and therefore, the screening for high-risk population shall be enhanced to reduce the potential of carcinomatous change in such patients.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Biyuan Luo ◽  
Fang Ma ◽  
Hao Liu ◽  
Jixiong Hu ◽  
Le Rao ◽  

Abstract Background Aberrant DNA methylation may offer opportunities in revolutionizing cancer screening and diagnosis. We sought to identify a non-invasive DNA methylation-based screening approach using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Differentially, DNA methylation blocks were determined by comparing methylation profiles of biopsy-proven HCC, liver cirrhosis, and normal tissue samples with high throughput DNA bisulfite sequencing. A multi-layer HCC screening model was subsequently constructed based on tissue-derived differentially methylated blocks (DMBs). This model was tested in a cohort consisting of 120 HCC, 92 liver cirrhotic, and 290 healthy plasma samples including 65 hepatitis B surface antigen-seropositive (HBsAg+) samples, independently validated in a cohort consisting of 67 HCC, 111 liver cirrhotic, and 242 healthy plasma samples including 56 HBsAg+ samples. Results Based on methylation profiling of tissue samples, 2321 DMBs were identified, which were subsequently used to construct a cfDNA-based HCC screening model, achieved a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 98% in the training cohort and a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 96% in the independent validation cohort. This model obtained a sensitivity of 76% in 37 early-stage HCC (Barcelona clinical liver cancer [BCLC] stage 0-A) patients. The screening model can effectively discriminate HCC patients from non-HCC controls, including liver cirrhotic patients, asymptomatic HBsAg+ and healthy individuals, achieving an AUC of 0.957(95% CI 0.939–0.975), whereas serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) only achieved an AUC of 0.803 (95% CI 0.758–0.847). Besides detecting patients with early-stage HCC from non-HCC controls, this model showed high capacity for distinguishing early-stage HCC from a high risk population (AUC=0.934; 95% CI 0.905–0.963), also significantly outperforming AFP. Furthermore, our model also showed superior performance in distinguishing HCC with normal AFP (< 20ng ml−1) from high risk population (AUC=0.93; 95% CI 0.892–0.969). Conclusions We have developed a sensitive blood-based non-invasive HCC screening model which can effectively distinguish early-stage HCC patients from high risk population and demonstrated its performance through an independent validation cohort. Trial registration The study was approved by the ethic committee of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (KYLL2018072) and Chongqing University Cancer Hospital (2019167). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov(#NCT04383353).

2022 ◽  
Momina Khan ◽  
Katie MacEntee ◽  
Reuben Kiptui ◽  
Amy Berkum ◽  
Abe Oudshoorn ◽  

Abstract Introduction: UNICEF estimates that there are as many as 100 million street-involved youth (SIY) globally. Marginalized conditions put SIY at higher risk of HIV and adverse outcomes once HIV-positive. The objective of this analysis was to describe barriers and facilitators of accessing HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services as Phase I of an implementation study evaluating the use of Peer Navigators to increase access to HIV services.Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and Theatre Testing were conducted with individuals who identify as SIY, health care providers, and community stakeholders living in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, London) and Kenya (Eldoret, Huruma, Kitale). Data were analyzed using a directed content approach, guided by the socio-ecological model (SEM).Results: Across the six sites were 195 participants: 64 SIY, 42 healthcare providers, and 97 community-based stakeholders. Barriers were identified at the societal (e.g. intersectional stigma and discrimination), public policy (e.g., inadequate access to basic needs, legal documentation, lack of health insurance, and limited community-based funding), institutional (e.g. lack of inclusive education and training, inadequate HIV educational outreach, and restrictive service provision), interpersonal (e.g., ineffective communication from healthcare providers), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. lack of trust and associated fear, low perception for healthcare, and lack of self-esteem). These contributed to limited HIV services utilization among SIY. Conversely, numerous facilitators were also identified at the public policy (e.g. affordable HIV services and treatment), institutional (e.g. available and accessible HIV prevention tools, HIV education and awareness programs, and holistic models of care), interpersonal level (e.g., systems navigation support, peer support, and personal relationships), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. self-efficacy) as positively supporting SIY access to HIV services.Conclusions: Intersectional stigma was a critical barrier in all sites, and policies and programs that foster welcoming environments for youth from diverse backgrounds and living circumstances may be better able to respond to the HIV service needs of this high risk population. Social support and navigation services were reported to facilitate access to HIV services in all sites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Noushin Fahimfar ◽  
Shakiba Yousefi ◽  
Sima Noorali ◽  
Safoora Gharibzadeh ◽  
Mahnaz Sanjari ◽  

Abstract Background Osteosarcopenia, defined as sarcopenia plus osteopenia/osteoporosis, may increase the risk of fractures and affects morbidity and mortality in the older population. Falling is also common in the elderly and increases the risk of fractures and mortality. We examined the association of cardio-metabolic risk factors with a history of falling in osteosarcopenic men. Methods We used the baseline data of the Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) program. Osteosarcopenia was defined as having both sarcopenia (reduced skeletal muscle mass plus low physical performance and/or low muscle strength) and osteopenia/osteoporosis (T-score ≤ − 1.0). Falling was defined as a self-reported history of an unintentional down on the ground during the previous year before the study. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) to quantify the associations. Results All elderly men diagnosed with osteosarcopenia (n = 341), with a mean age of 73.3(±7.4) years, were included. Almost 50(14.7%) participants reported falling. Age showed a positive association with falling (AOR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.04–1.14). An increase of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure(SBP), reduces the odds of falling by 26%(AOR:0.74, 95%CI:0.62–0.89), while a positive association was detected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), as 10 mg/dl increase in the FPG, raises the chance of falling by 14%(AOR = 1.14, 95%CI:1.06,1.23). Hypertriglyceridemia was inversely associated with falling (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.89). Conclusions Falling is a major public health problem in rapidly aging countries, especially in individuals with a higher risk of fragility fractures. Older age-raised fasting plasma glucose and low SBP are associated with falling in osteosarcopenic patients.  Considering the higher risk of fracture in osteosarcopenic men, comprehensive strategies are needed to prevent fall-related injuries in this high-risk population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Zhihong Chen ◽  
Yiping Zou ◽  
Yuanpeng Zhang ◽  
Zhenrong Chen ◽  
Fan Wu ◽  

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive malignant tumor, has a high incidence and unfavorable prognosis. Recently, the synergistic effect of pyroptosis in antitumor therapy and regulation of tumor immune microenvironment has made it possible to become a novel therapeutic method, but its potential mechanism still needs further exploration. Methods. Differentially expressed genes with prognostic value in Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Project of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA-LIHC) cohort were screened and incorporated into the risk signature by Cox proportional hazards regression model and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to conduct survival comparisons and estimate prediction ability. The dataset of Liver Cancer-RIKEN, Japan Project from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC-LIRI-JP) cohort was used to verify the reliability of the signature. Correlation analysis between clinicopathological characteristics, immune infiltration, drug sensitivities, and risk scores was conducted. Functional annotation analyses were performed for the genes differentially expressed between high-risk and low-risk groups. Results. A risk signature consisting of 6 pyroptosis-related genes in HCC was developed and validated. KM curves and ROC curves revealed its considerable predictive accuracy. Higher risk scores meant more advanced grade, higher alpha-fetoprotein level, and stronger invasive ability. Overexpressed genes in high-risk population were more enriched in the immune-associated pathways, and these patients might be more sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors instead of Sorafenib. Intriguingly, 6 identified genes were promising to be prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of HCC. Conclusions. The signature may have crucial clinical significance in predicting survival prognosis, immune infiltration, and drug efficacy based on pyroptosis-related genes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Di Liang ◽  
Jin Shi ◽  
Daojuan Li ◽  
Siqi Wu ◽  
Jing Jin ◽  

ObjectiveLung cancer screening has been widely conducted in Western countries. However, population-based lung cancer screening programs in Hebei in China are sparse. Our study aimed to assess the participation rate and detection rate of positive nodules and lung cancer in Hebei province.MethodIn total, 228 891 eligible participants aged 40–74 years were enrolled in the Cancer Screening Program in Hebei from 2013 to 2019. A total of 54 846 participants were evaluated as the lung cancer high-risk population by a risk score system which basically followed the Harvard Risk Index and was adjusted for the characteristics of the Chinese population. Then this high-risk population was recommended for low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. And all participants attended annual passive follow-up, and the active follow-up interval was based on radiologist’s suggestion. All participants were followed-up until December 31, 2020. The overall, group-specific participation rates were calculated, and its associated factors were analyzed by a multivariable logistic regression model. Participation rates and detection of positive nodules and lung cancer were reported.ResultsThe overall participation rate was 52.69%, where 28 899 participants undertook LDCT screening as recommended. The multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated that a high level of education, having disease history, and occupational exposure were found to be associated with the participation in LDCT screening. The median follow-up time was 3.56 person-years. Overall, the positive identification of lung nodules and suspected lung cancer were 12.73% and 1.46% through LDCT screening. After the native and passive follow-up, 257 lung cancer cases were diagnosed by lung cancer screening, and the detection rate of lung cancer was 0.89% in the screening group. And its incidence density was 298.72 per 100,000. Positive lung nodule rate and detection rate were increased with age.ConclusionOur study identified personal and epidemiological factors that could affect the participation rate. Our findings could provide the guideline for precise prevention and control of lung cancer in the future.

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