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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Author(s):  
Jinjin Song ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Xitong Guo ◽  
Kathy Ning Shen ◽  
Xiaofeng Ju

As M-Health apps become more popular, users can access more mobile health information (MHI) through these platforms. Yet one preeminent question among both researchers and practitioners is how to bridge the gap between simply providing MHI and persuading users to buy into the MHI for health self-management. To solve this challenge, this study extends the Elaboration Likelihood Model to explore how to make MHI advice persuasive by identifying the important central and peripheral cues of MHI under individual difference. The proposed research model was validated through a survey. The results confirm that (1) both information matching and platform credibility, as central and peripheral cues, respectively, have significant positive effects on attitudes toward MHI, but only information matching could directly affect health behavior changes; (2) health concern significantly moderates the link between information matching and cognitive attitude and only marginally moderates the link between platform credibility and attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicholas Alexander Bascou ◽  
Benjamin Haslund-Gourley ◽  
Katrina Amber-Monta ◽  
Kyle Samson ◽  
Nathaniel Goss ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The opioid epidemic is a rapidly growing public health concern in the USA, as the number of overdose deaths continues to increase each year. One strategy for combating the rising number of overdoses is through opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs). Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative OOPP, with changes in knowledge and attitudes serving as the primary outcome measures. Methods The OOPP was developed by a group of medical students under guidance from faculty advisors. Training sessions focused on understanding stigmatizing factors of opioid use disorder (OUD), as well as protocols for opioid overdose reversal through naloxone administration. Pre- and post-surveys were partially adapted from the opioid overdose attitudes and knowledge scales and administered to all participants. Paired t-tests were conducted to assess differences between pre- and post-surveys. Results A total of 440 individuals participated in the training; 381 completed all or the majority of the survey. Participants came from a diverse set of backgrounds, ages, and experiences. All three knowledge questions showed significant improvements. For attitude questions, significant improvements were found in all three questions evaluating confidence, two of three questions assessing attitudes towards overdose reversal, and four of five questions evaluating stigma and attitudes towards individuals with OUD. Conclusions Our innovative OOPP was effective not only in increasing knowledge but also in improving attitudes towards overdose reversal and reducing stigma towards individuals with OUD. Given the strong improvements in attitudes towards those with OUD, efforts should be made to incorporate the unique focus on biopsychosocial and sociohistorical components into future OOPPs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Humayun Kabir ◽  
Md. Kamrul Hasan ◽  
Mamunur Rahman ◽  
Shimpi Akter ◽  
Golam Ishraque Chowdhury ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mucormycosis, a severe fungal infection, is an emerging public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the perception of mucormycosis among Bangladeshi healthcare workers. Results An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out among the Bangladeshi healthcare workers from May 25, 2021, to June 5, 2021. The study found 422 responses from the healthcare workers of Bangladesh. Among the respondents, nearly half of them (45.26%) were doctors (n = 191). This study explored that the healthcare workers’ mucormycosis perception scores were significantly associated with their age, gender, profession, monthly income, marital status, job type, and death of friends and family members due to COVID-19. Conclusions This study emphasized the healthcare workers’ mucormycosis perception along with other associated factors. The findings could help policymakers to mitigate mucormycosis and related infectious diseases emergencies in the post-COVID-19 situation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 243-247
Author(s):  
Narinder Singh ◽  
Ajeet Pal Singh ◽  
Amar Pal Singh

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness that is quickly spreading over the globe, with significant death and morbidity rates. Dengue fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and caused by an RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family. The symptoms might vary from asymptomatic fever to life-threatening complications including hemorrhagic fever and shock. Although dengue virus infections are normally self-limiting, the disease has become a public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is a major public health concern owing to its rapid worldwide spread, and its burdens are now unmet due to a lack of accurate therapy and a simple diagnostic approach for the early stages of illness.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pratikshya Thapaliya ◽  
Taimur Asif Ali ◽  
Mahwish Mahboob Bhutta

Isolated pericardial Hydatid cyst without involvement of other viscera is a rare condition with reported incidence of 0.5-2% of all cases of cystic echinococcosis even in the countries endemic for the disease. Hydatid disease is a major public health concern in the animal raising regions worldwide. Pericardial hydatid disease can be asymptomatic or present with varying symptoms from atypical chest pain, arrhythmias, rupture and tamponade to anaphylaxis. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment is necessary to prevent fatal complications. Here we report a case of symptomatic isolated pericardial hydatid cyst who presented with epigastric pain. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4965 How to cite this:Thapaliya P, Ali TA, Bhutta MM. Isolated pericardial cystic Echinococcosis: A rare clinical presentation. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4965 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Author(s):  
Robert A. Kozak ◽  
Candace Rutherford ◽  
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt ◽  
N. Y. Elizabeth Chau ◽  
Ana Cabrera ◽  
...  

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an emerging public health concern and there is an urgent need for ways to rapidly identify cases so that outbreaks can be managed effectively. Conventional testing for HAV relies on anti-HAV IgM seropositivity. However, studies estimate that 10–30% of patients may not be diagnosed by serology. Molecular assays that can directly detect viral nucleic acids have the potential to improve diagnosis, which is key to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we developed a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect HAV RNA for the identification of acute HAV infection. Primers were designed to target the conserved 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of HAV, and the assay was optimized on both the Qiagen Rotor-Gene and the BD MAX. We successfully detected HAV from patient serum and stool samples with moderate differences in sensitivity and specificity depending on the platform used. Our results highlight the clinical utility of using a molecular assay to detect HAV from various specimen types that can be implemented in hospitals to assist with diagnostics, treatment and prevention.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  
...  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wanxin Wang ◽  
Yangfeng Guo ◽  
Xueying Du ◽  
Wenyan Li ◽  
Ruipeng Wu ◽  
...  

Since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, adolescents' emerging mental health and behavior issues have been an international public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to examine the situation of poor sleep quality, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to explore the associations between them before and during COVID-19. A total of 1,952 middle and high school students as eligible participants at baseline (pre-COVID-19, Wave 1; response rate: 98.79%), 1,831 eligible students were followed up at Wave 2 (October 2019 to December 2019, pre-COVID-19; retention rate: 93.80%), and 1,790 completed the follow-up at Wave 3 (during the COVID-19; retention rate: 97.80%). The mean age of the baseline students was 13.56 (SD: 1.46) years. The differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms between Wave 1, Wave 2, and Wave 3 were not statistically significant. The proportion of students with poor sleep quality increased over time, from Wave 1 (21.0%) to Wave 3 (26.0%, OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.17–1.60, P = 0.001) and from Wave 2 (21.9%) to Wave 3 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.11–1.51, P &lt; 0.001). The cross-lagged generalized linear mixed models revealed that the concurrent and cross-lagged associations of poor sleep quality with anxiety symptoms across the three waves were significant (P &lt; 0.05) and vice versa. Only a marginally significant positive cross-lagged association between poor sleep quality at Wave 2 and depressive symptoms at Wave 3 was found (standardized β estimate = 0.044, SE = 0.022, P = 0.045). Sleep quality was adversely affected during COVID-19, and the bidirectional associations of poor sleep quality with anxiety symptoms could not be neglected.


Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 162
Author(s):  
Tessy A. H. Hick ◽  
Corinne Geertsema ◽  
Maurice G. L. Henquet ◽  
Dirk E. Martens ◽  
Stefan W. Metz ◽  
...  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes a severe febrile illness with long-lasting arthralgia in humans. As there is no vaccine to protect humans and limit CHIKV epidemics, the virus continues to be a global public health concern. The CHIKV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are important immunogens; therefore, the aim of this study is to produce trimeric CHIKV spikes in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The CHIKV E1 and E2 ectodomains were covalently coupled by a flexible linker that replaces the 6K transmembrane protein. The C-terminal E1 transmembrane was replaced by a Strep-tag II for the purification of secreted spikes from the culture fluid. After production in Sf9 suspension cells (product yields of 5.8–7.6 mg/L), the CHIKV spikes were purified by Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography, which successfully cleared the co-produced baculoviruses. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate cross-linking demonstrated that the spikes are secreted as trimers. PNGase F treatment showed that the spikes are glycosylated. LC–MS/MS-based glycoproteomic analysis confirmed the glycosylation and revealed that the majority are of the mannose- or hybrid-type N-glycans and <2% have complex-type N-glycans. The LC –MS/MS analysis also revealed three O-glycosylation sites in E1. In conclusion, the trimeric, glycosylated CHIKV spikes have been successfully produced in insect cells and are now available for vaccination studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Aqueasha Martin-Hammond ◽  
Tanjala S. Purnell

A healthy diet and increased physical activity are essential for reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related deaths, a worldwide public health concern that disproportionately affects Black American communities. Still, Black Americans can face unique challenges meeting dietary and physical activity requirements due to inequities in access and quality of care, environmental and local factors, and difficulties in changing individual health behaviors. Personal informatics and self-tracking tools are one way of increasing awareness of health behaviors to motivate behavior change. However, there are still gaps in knowledge about what encourages different users to engage with personal informatics tools over time, particularly when used in collaborative, community-health settings. This paper contributes a nuanced understanding of fifteen participants' reasons for engaging in an existing community-based health education and behavior change program that combines collaborative self-tracking with culturally relevant content and social engagement to motivate heart-healthy behaviors. We illustrate participants' positive and negative experiences engaging in self-tracking and collaborative tasks during the program. We also discuss how participants envision that integrating technology might support or hinder participant engagement and the work of deploying community-based public health interventions. Finally, we discuss design implications for culturally informed, community-based personal informatics tools that engage Black American's in heart-healthy activities.


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