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Varea H Costello ◽  
David Tribble ◽  
Christa Eickhoff ◽  
D Hamilton Tilley ◽  
Gregory Utz ◽  

Abstract Background Antibiotic stewardship in the pre-travel care of older adults is important to effectively treat infections while minimizing harm from side effects and unnecessary antibiotic use. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics, risk behaviors, infectious diseases and antibiotic use between older (≥ 60 years) and younger (18-59 years) travelers. Methods TravMil is a prospective, observational cohort of United States Department of Defense beneficiaries traveling outside the continental US for ≤ 6.5 months. For this analysis, we included adults enrolled pre-travel between January 2010–August 2018 and excluded active duty personnel on deployment. Pre- and post-travel surveys captured trip characteristics, exposures, illnesses, and antibiotic use. Results 1742 travelers were analyzed: 747 (42.9%) were ≥ 60 years and 995 (57.1%) were 18-59 years. Older travelers were less likely to engage in high-risk dietary behaviors and experience travelers’ diarrhea than younger travelers (18.2% vs 22.9%; p<0.05). Influenza-like illnesses (12.5%) and febrile illness (3.4%) occurred less frequently in the older cohort. Antibiotic use for self treatment was common in both age groups (25.7% vs. 26.7%) and often inappropriate e.g. for treatment of occasional loose stool or mild travelers’ diarrhea (older adults 67.0% [67/100] vs. younger adults 57.6% [83/144]; p <0.05), and influenza-like illnesses (63.4% [64/101] vs. 58.6% [68/116]; p<0.05). Conclusions Older travelers were less likely to engage in high-risk behaviors and experience travelers’ diarrhea, and both age groups experienced mild, self-limited infections. Inappropriate use of antibiotics was common, suggesting that antimicrobial stewardship should be emphasized at pre-travel counseling with international travelers.

2021 ◽  
Wenming Bao ◽  
Liming Deng ◽  
haitao Yu ◽  
bangjie He ◽  
Zixia Lin ◽  

Abstract Background Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a malignant neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Prediction of prognosis is critical for the individualized clinical management of patients with ICC. The purpose of this study is to establish a nomogram based on the psoas muscle index (PMI) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) to identify the high risk-patient with ICC after curative resection. Methods ICC Patients after hepatectomy in multi-hospital from August 2012 to October 2019 were enrolled. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. The independent factors were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. A nomogram based on independent factors was established to predict ICC patient prognosis. Results 178 ICC patients were included. The OS was worst in the patients with a combination of low PMI combined low PNI (p < 0.01). PMI, PNI, lymph node metastasis and tumor differentiation were the independent prognostic risk factors; these factors were used to establish the nomogram was established by it. The calibration curve revealed that the nomogram survival probability prediction model was in good agreement with the actual observation results. The nomogram has good reliability in predicting ICC patient prognosis (OS C-index = 0.692). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the nomogram's 3-year predicted survival was 0.752. Based on the stratified by nomogram, the median survival for low-risk patients was 59.8 months, compared with 16.2 months for high-risk patients (p༜0.001). Conclusion The nomogram based on the PMI and PNI can identify patients with the highest risk of poor prognosis after curative hepatectomy. It is a good decision-making tool for individualized treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Enzo Lüsebrink ◽  
Alexander Krogmann ◽  
Franziska Tietz ◽  
Matthias Riebisch ◽  
Rainer Okrojek ◽  

Abstract Background Percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) has become an established procedure in intensive care units (ICU). However, the safety of this method has been under debate given the growing number of critically ill patients with high bleeding risk receiving anticoagulation, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or even a combination of both, i.e. triple therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study, including such a high proportion of patients on antithrombotic therapy, was to investigate whether PDT in high-risk ICU patients is associated with elevated procedural complications and to analyse the risk factors for bleeding occurring during and after PDT. Methods PDT interventions conducted in ICUs at 12 European sites between January 2016 and October 2019 were retrospectively analysed for procedural complications. For subgroup analyses, patient stratification into clinically relevant risk groups based on anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatment regimens was performed and the predictors of bleeding occurrence were analysed. Results In total, 671 patients receiving PDT were included and stratified into four clinically relevant antithrombotic treatment groups: (1) intravenous unfractionated heparin (iUFH, prophylactic dosage) (n = 101); (2) iUFH (therapeutic dosage) (n = 131); (3) antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and/or P2Y12 receptor inhibitor) with iUFH (prophylactic or therapeutic dosage) except for triple therapy (n = 290) and (4) triple therapy (DAPT with iUFH in therapeutic dosage) (n = 149). Within the whole cohort, 74 (11%) bleedings were reported to be procedure-related. Bleeding occurrence during and after PDT was independently associated with low platelet count (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.56, 0.92], p = 0.009), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.75, 95% CI [1.01, 3.03], p = 0.047) and previous stroke (OR 2.13, 95% CI [1.1, 3.97], p = 0.02). Conclusion In this international, multicenter study bronchoscopy-guided PDT was a safe and low-complication airway management option, even in a cohort of high risk for bleeding on cardiovascular ICUs. Low platelet count, chronic kidney disease and previous stroke were identified as independent risk factors of bleeding during and after PDT but not triple therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chunxiao Sun ◽  
Siwei Wang ◽  
Yuchen Zhang ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Tianyu Zeng ◽  

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key components in tumor microenvironment (TME). The secreted products of CAFs play important roles in regulating tumor cells and further impacting clinical prognosis. This study aims to reveal the relationship between CAF-secreted cytokines and breast cancer (BC) by constructing the risk signature. We performed three algorithms to reveal CAF-related cytokines in the TCGA BC dataset and identified five prognosis-related cytokines. Then we used single-cell RNA sequencing (ScRNA-Seq) datasets of BC to confirm the expression level of these five cytokines in CAFs. METABRIC and other independent datasets were utilized to validate the findings in further analyses. Based on the identified five-cytokine signature derived from CAFs, BC patients with high-risk score (RS) had shorter overall survival than low-RS cases. Further analysis suggested that the high-RS level correlated with cell proliferation and mast cell infiltration in BCs of the Basal-like subtype. The results also indicated that the level of RS could discriminate the high-risk BC cases harboring driver mutations (i.e., PI3KCA, CDH1, and TP53). Additionally, the status of five-cytokine signature was associated with the frequency and molecular timing of whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) analysis among BC samples indicated that the high-RS level was associated with the increase of tumor subclones. This work demonstrated that the prognostic signature based on CAF-secreted cytokines was associated with clinical outcome, tumor progression, and genetic alteration. Our findings may provide insights to develop novel strategies for early intervention and prognostic prediction of BC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jianyun Lu ◽  
Yanhui Liu ◽  
Xiaowei Ma ◽  
Meixia Li ◽  
Zhicong Yang

Background: Scrub typhus was epidemic in the western Pacific Ocean area and East Asia, scrub typhus epidemic in densely populated areas in southern China. To better understand the association between meteorological variables, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and scrub typhus incidence in Guangzhou was benefit to the control and prevention.Methodology/Principal Findings: We collected weekly data for scrub typhus cases and meteorological variables in Guangzhou, and Southern Oscillation Index from 2006 to 2018, and used the distributed lag non-linear models to evaluate the relationships between meteorological variables, SOI and scrub typhus. The median value of each variable was set as the reference. The high-risk occupations were farmer (51.10%), house worker (17.51%), and retiree (6.29%). The non-linear relationships were observed with different lag weeks. For example, when the mean temperature was 27.7°C with1-week lag, the relative risk (RR) was highest as 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01–1.17). The risk was the highest when the relative humidity was 92.0% with 9-week lag, with the RR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02–1.19). For aggregate rainfall, the highest RR was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03–1.11), when it was 83.0 mm with 4-week lag. When the SOI was 19 with 11-week lag, the highest RR was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01–1.12). Most of the extreme effects of SOI and meteorological factors on scrub typical cases were statistically significant.Conclusion/Significance: The high-risk occupations of scrub typhus in Guangzhou were farmer, house worker, and retiree. Meteorological factors and SOI played an important role in scrub typhus occurrence in Guangzhou. Non-linear relationships were observed in almost all the variables in our study. Approximately, mean temperature, and relative humidity positively correlated to the incidence of scrub typhus, on the contrary to atmospheric pressure and weekly temperature range (WTR). Aggregate rainfall and wind velocity showed an inverse-U curve, whereas the SOI appeared the bimodal distribution. These findings can be helpful to facilitate the development of the early warning system to prevent the scrub typhus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Cale Lawlor ◽  
Marine Gogia ◽  
Irma Kirtadze ◽  
Keti Stvilia ◽  
Guranda Jikia ◽  

Abstract Background Georgia has a significant risk of ongoing HIV and HCV outbreak. Within this context, harm reduction aims to reduce risk associated with drug use through community activities, such as peer recruitment and involvement. The aim of this study was to identify significant differences between known and hidden populations, and attest to the ongoing utility of peer-driven intervention across multiple years in recruiting high-risk, vulnerable populations through peer networks. It was hypothesised that significant differences would remain between known, and previously unknown, members of the drug-using community, and that peer-driven intervention would recruit individuals with high-risk, vulnerable individuals with significant differences to the known population. Methods Sampling occurred across 9 months in 11 cities in Georgia, recruiting a total of 2807 drug-using individuals. Standardised questionnaires were completed for all consenting and eligible participants, noting degree of involvement in harm reduction activities. These data underwent analysis to identify statistically significant different between those known and unknown to harm reduction activities, including in demographics, knowledge and risk behaviours. Results Peer recruitment was able to attract a significantly different cohort compared to those already known to harm reduction services. Peer-driven intervention was able to recruit a younger population by design, with 25.1% of PDI participants being under 25, compared to 3.2% of NSP participants. PDI successfully recruited women by design, with 6.9% of PDI participants being women compared to 2.0% in the NSP sample. Important differences in drug use, behaviour and risk were seen between the two groups, with the peer-recruited cohort undertaking higher-risk injecting behaviours. A mixture of risk differences was seen across different subgroups and between the known and unknown population. Overall risk, driven by sex risk, was consistently higher in younger people (0.59 vs 0.57, p = 0.00). Recent overdose was associated with higher risk in all risk categories. Regression showed age and location as important variables in overall risk. Peer-recruited individuals reported much lower rates of previous HIV testing (34.2% vs 99.5%, p = 0.00). HIV knowledge and status were not significantly different. Conclusions Significant differences were seen between the known and unknown drug-using populations, and between previous and current research, speaking to the dynamic change of the drug-using culture. The recruitment strategy was successful in recruiting females and younger people. This is especially important, given that this sampling followed subsequent rounds of peer-driven intervention, implying the ability of peer-assisted recruitment to consistently reach hidden, unknown populations of the drug-using community, who have different risks and behaviours. Risk differences were seen compared to previous samples, lending strength to the peer-recruitment model, but also informing how harm reduction programmes should cater services, such as education, to different cohorts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 251-265
M. P. Kihn ◽  
N. Caruso ◽  
K. Iaconis ◽  
Palacios González M. J. ◽  
L. Soler

Interactions between humans and carnivores tend to be conflictual, especially due to predation on domestic animals. As certain landscape characteristics predispose the occurrence of carnivore attacks, spatial modelling of predation events can be particularly useful when developing management plans. In this study we determined the incidence of predation on the mortality of domestic animals by interviewing local inhabitants. In addition, we identified the spatial variables that explain the distribution of the conflicts and we created a two–scale model based on the Maxent algorithm. The results showed that Puma concolor (41.2 %) and the foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous (33.3 %) were the most conflictive species. Predation accounted for only 5.6 % of the causes of domestic animal mortality. The distribution models showed that the most probable variables for predicting conflicts were the distance from the roads, livestock density and the proportion of anthropized areas. High–risk areas represented 28 % of the study area and were distributed in broad patches around the protected areas and in the eastern sector of the area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianqiang Tan ◽  
Dayu Chen ◽  
Rongni Chang ◽  
Lizhen Pan ◽  
Jinling Yang ◽  

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) often causing progressive and irreversible neurological damage, physical and intellectual development lag or even death, and serious harm to the family and society. The screening of neonatal IEMs by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an effective method for early diagnosis and presymptomatic treatment to prevent severe permanent sequelae and death. A total of 111,986 healthy newborns and 7,461 hospitalized high-risk infants were screened for IEMs using MS/MS to understand the characteristics of IEMs and related gene mutations in newborns and high-risk infants in Liuzhou. Positive samples were analyzed by Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. The results showed that the incidence of IEMs in newborns in the Liuzhou area was 1/3,733, and the incidence of IEMs in high-risk infants was 1/393. Primary carnitine deficiency (1/9,332), phenylketonuria (1/18,664), and isovaleric acidemia (1/37,329) ranked the highest in neonates, while citrullinemia type II ranked the highest in high-risk infants (1/1,865). Further, 56 mutations of 17 IEMs-related genes were found in 49 diagnosed children. Among these, HPD c.941T &gt; C, CBS c.1465C &gt; T, ACADS c.337G &gt; A, c.1195C &gt; T, ETFA c.737G &gt; T, MMACHC 1076bp deletion, PCCB c.132-134delGACinsAT, IVD c.548C &gt; T, c.757A &gt; G, GCDH c.1060G &gt; T, and HMGCL c.501C &gt; G were all unreported variants. Some related hotspot mutations were found, including SLC22A5 c.51C &gt; G, PAH c.1223G &gt; A, IVD c.1208A &gt; G, ACADS c.625G &gt; A, and GCDH c.532G &gt; A. These results show that the overall incidence of IEMs in the Liuzhou area is high. Hence, the scope of IEMs screening and publicity and education should be expanded for a clear diagnosis in the early stage of the disease.

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