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Author(s):  
Elizalde L. Piol ◽  
◽  
Luisito Lolong Lacatan ◽  
Jaime P. Pulumbarit

The use of Linear Regression in predicting enrolment has been shown to be beneficial, although it varies with various datasets and attributes; varying weights of the correlation of the attributes can be discarded if they do not impact the prediction. Data collecting had grown since prior investigations, resulting in a more complicated dataset with many varieties. As a result of the data being created by multiple clerks, cleaning and combining proved tough; nonetheless, the fundamental parameters remain intact. Different algorithms were examined but Linear Regression obtained the highest accuracy with a 12.398 percentage for the absolute error and a root mean squared of 26.936 to create a tangible model to anticipate the enrolment of Region IVA CALABARZON in the Philippines. This demonstrates that it was 2.067 percentage points more than the prior research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel M. Hartung ◽  
Jonah Geddes ◽  
Sara E. Hallvik ◽  
P. Todd Korthuis ◽  
Luke Middleton ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In 2015, Oregon’s Medicaid program implemented a performance improvement project to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing across its 16 coordinated care organizations (CCOs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of that program on prescription opioid use and outcomes. Methods Using Medicaid claims data from 2014 to 2017, we conducted interrupted time-series analyses to examine changes in the prescription opioid use and overdose rates before (July 2014 to June 2015) and after (January 2016 to December 2017) implementation of Oregon’s high-dose policy initiative (July 2015 to December 2015). Prescribing outcomes were: 1) total opioid prescriptions 2) high-dose [> 90 morphine milligram equivalents per day] opioid prescriptions, and 3) proportion of opioid prescriptions that were high-dose. Opioid overdose outcomes included emergency department visits or hospitalizations that involved an opioid-related poisoning (total, heroin-involved, non-heroin involved). Analyses were performed at the state and CCO level. Results There was an immediate reduction in high dose opioid prescriptions after the program was implemented (− 1.55 prescription per 1000 enrollee; 95% CI − 2.26 to − 0.84; p < 0.01). Program implementation was also associated with an immediate drop (− 1.29 percentage points; 95% CI − 1.94 to − 0.64 percentage points; p < 0.01) and trend reduction (− 0.23 percentage point per month; 95% CI − 0.33 to − 0.14 percentage points; p < 0.01) in the monthly proportion of high-dose opioid prescriptions. The trend in total, heroin-involved, and non-heroin overdose rates increased significantly following implementation of the program. Conclusions Although Oregon’s high-dose opioid performance improvement project was associated with declines in high-dose opioid prescriptions, rates of opioid overdose did not decrease. Policy efforts to reduce opioid prescribing risks may not be sufficient to address the growing opioid crisis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marius Huguet ◽  
Xavier Joutard ◽  
Isabelle Ray-Coquard ◽  
Lionel Perrier

Abstract Background Studies of the hospital volume-outcome relationship have highlighted that a greater volume activity improves patient outcomes. While this finding has been known for years, most studies to date have failed to delve into what underlies this relationship. Objective This study aimed to shed light on the basis of the hospital volume effect on patient outcomes by comparing treatment modalities for epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients. Data An exhaustive dataset of 355 patients in first-line treatment for Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC) in 2012 in three regions of France was used. These regions account for 15% of the metropolitan French population. Methods In the presence of endogeneity induced by a reverse causality between hospital volume and patient outcomes, we used an instrumental variable approach. Hospital volume of activity was instrumented by the distance from patients’ homes to their hospital, the population density, and the median net income of patient municipalities. Results Based on our parameter estimates, we found that the rate of complete tumor resection would increase by 15.5 percentage points with centralized care, and by 8.3 percentage points if treatment decisions were coordinated by high-volume centers compared to decentralized care. Conclusion As volume alone is an imperfect correlate of quality, policy-makers need to know what volume is a proxy for in order to devise volume-based policies.


Demography ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Donna K. Ginther ◽  
Astrid L. Grasdal ◽  
Robert A. Pollak

Abstract Fathers' multiple-partner fertility (MPF) is associated with substantially worse educational outcomes for children. We focus on children in fathers' second families that are nuclear: households consisting of a man, a woman, their joint children, and no other children. We analyze outcomes for almost 75,000 Norwegian children, all of whom lived in nuclear families until at least age 18. Children with MPF fathers are more likely than other children from nuclear families to drop out of secondary school (24% vs. 17%) and less likely to obtain a bachelor's degree (44% vs. 51%). These gaps remain substantial—at 4 and 5 percentage points, respectively—after we control for child and parental characteristics, such as income, wealth, education, and age. Resource competition with the children in the father's first family does not explain the differences in educational outcomes. We find that the association between a father's previous childless marriage and his children's educational outcomes is similar to that between a father's MPF and his children's educational outcomes. Birth order does not explain these results. This similarity suggests that selection is the primary explanation for the association between fathers' MPF and children's educational outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miquel Oliu-Barton ◽  
Bary SR Pradel ◽  
Nicolas Woloszko ◽  
Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud ◽  
Philippe Aghion ◽  
...  

Abstract In the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have used various interventions,1,2 including COVID certificates as proof of vaccination, recovery, or a recent negative test, required for individuals to access shops, restaurants, and education or workplaces.3 While arguments for and against COVID certificates have focused on reducing transmission and ethical concerns,4,5 the effect of the certificates on vaccine uptake, public health, and the economy requires investigation. We construct counterfactuals based on innovation diffusion theory6 and validate them with econometric methods7 to evaluate the impact of incentives created by COVID certificates in France, Germany, and Italy. We estimate that from their announcement during summer 2021 to the end of the year, the intervention led to increased vaccine uptake in France of 13.0 (95% CI 9.7–14.9) percentage points (p.p.) of the total population, in Germany 6.2 (2.6–6.9) p.p., and in Italy 9.7 (5.4–12.3) p.p.; averted an additional 3,979 (3,453–4,298) deaths in France (i.e., 31.7%), 1,133 (-312–1,358) in Germany (5.6%), and 1,331 (502–1,794) in Italy (14.0%); and prevented gross domestic product (GDP) losses of €6.0 (5.9–6.1) billion in France, €1.4 (1.3–1.5) billion in Germany, and €2.1 (2.0–2.2) billion in Italy. Notably, the application of COVID certificates substantially reduced the pressure on intensive care units (ICUs) and, in France, averted surpassing the occupancy levels where prior lockdowns were instated. Overall, our findings are more substantial than predicted8 and may help to inform decisions about when and how to employ COVID certificates to increase vaccination and thus avoid stringent interventions, such as closures, curfews, and lockdowns, with large social and economic consequences.


Author(s):  
Daniel Alves Abba

We investigate the influence of the rapidly developing mobile banking service "mobile money" on rural households' capacity to smooth their investment in education following a negative shock. We find that a negative shock reduces per school-age kid educational spending by 9.3 percentage points in families that do not utilize mobile money but by 8.3 percentage points in homes that have used mobile money. The underlying process is a rise in remittance receipts and sender variety as a result of the lower transaction costs afforded by mobile money. We demonstrate that our findings are resistant to alternative processes. We utilize the extension of the mobile money agent network as an exogenous variable in mobile money access.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 179-196
Author(s):  
Janiquele Soares Silva Batista ◽  
◽  
Dorismar David Alves ◽  
João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira ◽  
Alfredo Acosta Backes ◽  
...  

The objective was to evaluate the qualitative and nutritional aspects of elephant grass cv. BRS capiaçu silage with increasing proportions of silk cotton. A completely randomized design was used with five (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60% on natural matter basis) different inclusion proportions of silk cotton to elephant grass silage and four repetitions. Silages were prepared in PVC minisilos and remained ensiled for 42 days. The inclusion of silk cotton resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) contents at 0.06, 0.30, 0.23, 0.20, and 0.09 percentage points for each 1% inclusion, respectively. There was an increasing linear effect of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), with an increase of 39.32 and 20.89% from the lowest to the highest inclusion of silk cotton to elephant grass cv. BRS capiaçu silage. Values of pH, gas losses (GL), effluent losses (EL), dry matter recovery (DMR), hemicellulose, and lignin were not influenced by the evaluated inclusion levels, showing estimated averages of 3.87, 1, 42%, 11.55kg t-1 natural matter, 97.36%, 19.30%, and 7.20%, respectively. An increasing linear effect was found for fraction a, c, effective degradability (ED) (2% and 5%) dry matter, with an increment of 0.05, 0.0005, and 0.11 percent points, respectively. There was a quadratic effect for fraction b, potential degradability (PD), ED (2%), with minimum points of 23.72%, 50.52%, (at 45% inclusion level) 39.69%, (at 15% inclusion level) respectively. The indigestible fraction (IF) had a quadratic effect with a maximum of 49.48% at the 45% inclusion level. The colonization time (CT) linearly reduced by 0.09 percentage points for each 1% inclusion evaluated. According to the parameters evaluated, the inclusion of up to 60% silk cotton improved nutritional aspects and nutritional value of elephant grass cv. BRS capiaçu silage.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-26
Author(s):  
Maria Czajkowska-Białkowska

The crisis caused by COVID-19 has increased interest to the subject of integrity in organizations. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the opinions on the value of honesty, broken down by the group of supervisors and subordinates during the crisis caused by COVID-19. The analysis was carried out in Poland among undergraduate students pursuing a bachelor’s degree in fields representing disciplines other than management. The paper used a survey method; 102 respondents took part in the survey. 9.52% of men and 5.00% of women in the group of subordinates did not have opinions on this subject. In the group of supervisors, the situation was completely opposite: 6.25% of women and 4.76% of men showed such a result. Significant discrepancies were noticed in the assessment of the importance of honesty depending on the education field of the respondents. The difference between the highest assessments of the importance of this value was 33.70 percentage points in the supervisors’ group, and 38.64 percentage points in the subordinates group. Drawing attention to this problem, which affects all participants of an organization to a different extent, may help to shape the ethical attitudes of future managers and, in consequence, manage their organizations better.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bernardo Hernandez ◽  
Katie Panhorst Harris ◽  
Casey K. Johanns ◽  
Erin B. Palmisano ◽  
Rebecca Cogen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother’s locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women’s characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. Results Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (β = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (β = − 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, − 0.03) more than in the comparison group. Conclusions Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities’ capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Benjamin Harrap ◽  
Tamara Taylor ◽  
Grant Russell ◽  
Anthony Scott

Abstract Background: Despite the low cost of using email to distribute surveys to medical practitioners, email invitations have been associated with lower response rates, potentially increasing response bias and reducing external validity. We examine if there is a difference in response rates from using email rather than a mailed invitation letter in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of qualified physicians. Methods: We use a parallel randomised controlled trial during the 11th annual wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal survey of doctors. Participants were from previous waves of MABEL and newly invited in Wave 11. The control group was invited using a mailed paper letter (including a paper survey plus instructions to complete online) and three mailed paper reminders. The intervention group was approached in the same way apart from the second reminder when they were approached by email only. The primary outcome is the response rate and the statistical analysis was blinded.Results: 18,247 doctors were randomly allocated to the control (9,125) or intervention group (9,127), with 9,108 and 9,107 included in the final analysis. Using intention to treat analysis, the response rate in the intervention group was 35.92% compared to 37.59% in the control group, a difference of -1.66 percentage points (95% CI: -3.06 to -0.26). The difference was larger for General Practitioners (-2.76 percentage points, 95% CI: -4.65 to -0.87) compared to other specialists (-0.47 percentage points, 95% CI: -2.53 to 1.60). For those who supplied an email address, the average treatment effect on the treated was higher at -2.63 percentage points (95% CI: -4.50 to -0.75) for all physicians, -3.17 percentage points (95% CI: -5.83 to -0.53) for General Practitioners, and -2.1 percentage points (95% CI: -4.75 to 0.56) for other specialists. Conclusions: For qualified physicians, using email to invite participants to complete a survey leads to lower response rates compared to a mailed letter. Lower response rates need to be traded off with the lower costs of using email rather than mailed letters.


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