ObjectiveCalcium supplementation can prevent gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, besides the non-consensus of existing studies, there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal dosing of calcium.MethodEight electronic databases, namely, the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANGFANG, VIP, CBM, and CNKI, were searched. The studies were retrieved from inception to July 13, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality based on the inclusion criteria. In particular, the calcium supplementation doses were divided into three groups, namely, the high-dose (≥1.5 g), medium-dose (1.0–1.49 g), and the low-dose group (<1.0 g). The participants were also divided into high-risk and low-risk groups, according to the risk of developing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.Results and DiscussionA total of 48 studies were incorporated into the final analyses. All doses of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in the low-risk population (low dose - three studies; medium dose- 11 studies; high dose- 28 studies), whereas the medium-dose (three studies) reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in high-risk groups. Moreover, a medium dose of calcium supplementation had the maximum effect in reducing gestational hypertension in low-risk and high-risk populations. The medium (three studies) and high doses (13 studies) of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in the low-risk groups. However, a medium-dose calcium supplementation maximally prevented pre-eclampsia in the low-risk population. The authenticity and reliability of the results were reduced due to the limitations of contemporary studies in terms of experimental design, result measurement, statistics, and evidence quality. Therefore, high-quality studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate further the effect of calcium supplementation in preventing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining.
Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%.
Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status.
How to cite this:Ishaque SM, Achakzai MS, Ziauddin, Pervez S. Correlation of predisposing factors and Esophageal Malignancy in high risk population of Baluchistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Aberrant DNA methylation may offer opportunities in revolutionizing cancer screening and diagnosis. We sought to identify a non-invasive DNA methylation-based screening approach using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Differentially, DNA methylation blocks were determined by comparing methylation profiles of biopsy-proven HCC, liver cirrhosis, and normal tissue samples with high throughput DNA bisulfite sequencing. A multi-layer HCC screening model was subsequently constructed based on tissue-derived differentially methylated blocks (DMBs). This model was tested in a cohort consisting of 120 HCC, 92 liver cirrhotic, and 290 healthy plasma samples including 65 hepatitis B surface antigen-seropositive (HBsAg+) samples, independently validated in a cohort consisting of 67 HCC, 111 liver cirrhotic, and 242 healthy plasma samples including 56 HBsAg+ samples.
Based on methylation profiling of tissue samples, 2321 DMBs were identified, which were subsequently used to construct a cfDNA-based HCC screening model, achieved a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 98% in the training cohort and a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 96% in the independent validation cohort. This model obtained a sensitivity of 76% in 37 early-stage HCC (Barcelona clinical liver cancer [BCLC] stage 0-A) patients. The screening model can effectively discriminate HCC patients from non-HCC controls, including liver cirrhotic patients, asymptomatic HBsAg+ and healthy individuals, achieving an AUC of 0.957(95% CI 0.939–0.975), whereas serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) only achieved an AUC of 0.803 (95% CI 0.758–0.847). Besides detecting patients with early-stage HCC from non-HCC controls, this model showed high capacity for distinguishing early-stage HCC from a high risk population (AUC=0.934; 95% CI 0.905–0.963), also significantly outperforming AFP. Furthermore, our model also showed superior performance in distinguishing HCC with normal AFP (< 20ng ml−1) from high risk population (AUC=0.93; 95% CI 0.892–0.969).
We have developed a sensitive blood-based non-invasive HCC screening model which can effectively distinguish early-stage HCC patients from high risk population and demonstrated its performance through an independent validation cohort.
The study was approved by the ethic committee of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (KYLL2018072) and Chongqing University Cancer Hospital (2019167). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov(#NCT04383353).