Intravenous Infusion
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2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Janaina Maria Xavier Corrêa ◽  
Raquel Vieira Niella ◽  
Jéssica Natália Silva de Oliveira ◽  
Alex Costa Silva Junior ◽  
Claire Souza da Costa Marques ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Multimodal analgesia consists of the combination of analgesic drugs at low doses to act in different places along the path of pain. Studies with continuous infusion of analgesic drugs in cats are not common. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effect of maropitant, lidocaine and ketamine alone or in combination (intravenous bolus + subsequent continuous intravenous infusion) in the management of acute postoperative pain in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Seventy healthy cats undergoing an ovariohysterectomy received a standard anesthetic protocol consisting of acepromazine and morphine, propofol (anesthesia induction), and isoflurane (anesthesia maintenance). The animals were stratified into seven groups (n = 10 in each group): control (CG), maropitant (MG), lidocaine (LG), ketamine (KG), maropitant + lidocaine (LMG), maropitant + ketamine (KMG), and maropitant + lidocaine + ketamine (LKMG). All drugs were injected first as an intravenous bolus and then by continuous intravenous infusion. During surgery, esophageal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, expired isoflurane concentration, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide at the end of expiration were evaluated at 7 time points. Postoperative pain was evaluated for 6 h after extubation using the visual analogue scale and the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale for assessing postoperative pain in cats. Results Adverse effects related to maropitant, lidocaine and ketamine infusion were not observed. Pain scores were lower in the MG, KG and LG groups when compared to the CG group using both scales. Although pain scores were also lower in all combination groups than CG, more animals in these groups required rescue analgesia compared to MG. This indicates that the postoperative analgesic effect of all drugs, either alone or in combination, confers analgesia, although the combinations did not promote greater analgesia. Conclusions Continuous intravenous infusion of maropitant, lidocaine, and ketamine alone induces postoperative analgesic effect in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, but combinations of these drugs did not increase the analgesic effect. No adverse effect was observed with any drug or their combination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Ren ◽  
Fang Chen ◽  
Huijuan Zhang ◽  
Juanhua Tu ◽  
Xiaowei Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The New Nurses who lack the ability to recognize and manage anaphylactic shock can endanger the patients. In this study, we explored the effect of a simulated scenario designed to improve nurses’ understanding of their roles and responsibilities during the rescue of a patient with anaphylactic shock. Methods The program of a simulation-based training was designed to teach learners to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock, place the patient in the correct position, stop ongoing intravenous infusion of the antibiotic which trigger the anaphylactic shock, restart an intravenous infusion on a new infusion apparatus, give 100% oxygen via a nasal cannula or mask, preserve airway patency, call the rapid response team (RRT), and correctly administer the medications prescribed by the clinician. Instructors evaluated each learner’s skills and behaviors by using a clinical competency questionnaire. All learners then completed the Chinese version of the Simulation Design Scale (SDS) and participated in semi-structured interviews with their instructors after the training. Results All learners showed significant improvements in the 6 competencies assessed by the clinical competency questionnaire after the simulation-based training (all P<0.001). Scores on the SDS revealed that the learners were highly satisfied with all aspects of the simulation-based training (the 20 satisfaction rates were all above 90.00%). During the semi-structured interviews, new graduated nurses reported that simulation-based training in the management of anaphylactic shock was extremely important and would guide them in clinical practice. Conclusions The simulation-based training in anaphylactic shock is a potentially viable and effective method to teach new registered nurses to manage clinical incidents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (9) ◽  
pp. 1999-2004
Author(s):  
Tao Wu ◽  
Fangshu Chen ◽  
Hanyan Xiao ◽  
Tianying Xu

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and prognosis following treatment of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) patients with a combination of cinnarizide maleate and nimodipine after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).Methods: Eighty-eight patients with CVS after SAH were selected and divided into control group (CG) and study group (EG), each with 44 patients (n = 44). Patients in CG were treated with intravenous infusion of cinnarizide maleate, while those in EG received intravenous infusion of cinnarizide maleate together, and their clinical efficacy and prognosis were compared.Results: Compared with CG, total treatment effectiveness (response) in EG was significantly higher, while levels of inflammatory factors were lower (p < 0.05). Serum protein levels of S100 β and ET-1, and MCA blood flow velocity in EG were notably lower (p < 0.05), but GCS scores were highercompared with CG (p < 0.05). The NIHSS scores were lower and BI indices were higher in EG than in CG (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Treatment of CVS patients after SAH using a combination of cinnarizide maleate and nimodipine effectively reduces the levels of inflammatory factors, improves quality of prognosis, and relieves symptoms of CVS, when compared with administration of cinnarizide maleate only. Therefore, the combination treatment is recommended for the management of CVS after SAH.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Kuat Sitepu ◽  
Anita Srigandaria Purba ◽  
Arfah May Sara ◽  
Widya .

Background :  The incidence of ebitis is one indicator of the quality of hospital services with the standard set by The Infusion Nursing of Practice, which is 5%. The incidence of phlebitis is an indicator of minimum hospital service quality with a standard incidence of ≤1.5%. Purpose : Knowing the effect of using betadine ointment on the incidence of phlebitis at the intravenous infusion site at the Army Hospital TK IV. 01.07.01 Pematangsiantar. Methods : This type of research the researcher used was a quasi experiment with the equivalent control group design. The research instrument used was an observation sheet with a sample of 30 patients who had an intravenous infusion attached. Results: There was a significant effect of using betadine ointment on the incidence of phlebitis on intravenous infusion therapy. Statistical analysis using normality test, homogeneity and hypothesis testing. Conclusions and suggestions : The use of betadine ointment against the incidence of phlebitis at the intravenous infusion site has a significant relationship. Therefore the hospital management must continue to make efforts to improve services to patients. As a suggestion, room nurses should increase their knowledge through training on infection control and prevention, nosocomial infection prevention training in hospitals.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
C Ganesh Babu ◽  
J R Dinesh Kumar ◽  
V R Balaji ◽  
K Priyadharsini ◽  
S P Karthi

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Ren ◽  
Fang Chen ◽  
Huijuan Zhang ◽  
Juanhua Tu ◽  
Xiaowei Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The New Nurses who lack the ability to recognize and manage anaphylactic shock can endanger the patients. In this study, we explored the effect of a simulated scenario designed to improve nurses’ understanding of their roles and responsibilities during the rescue of a patient with anaphylactic shock.Methods: The program of a simulation-based training was designed to teach learners to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock, place the patient in the correct position, stop ongoing intravenous infusion of the antibiotic which trigger the anaphylactic shock, restart an intravenous infusion on a new infusion apparatus, give 100% oxygen via a nasal cannula or mask, preserve airway patency, call the rapid response team (RRT), and correctly administer the medications prescribed by the clinician. Instructors evaluated each learner’s skills and behaviors by using a clinical competency questionnaire. All learners then completed the Chinese version of the Simulation Design Scale (SDS) and participated in semi-structured interviews with their instructors after the training.Results: All learners showed significant improvements in the 6 competencies assessed by the clinical competency questionnaire after the simulation-based training (all P<0.001). Scores on the SDS revealed that the learners were highly satisfied with all aspects of the simulation-based training (the 20 satisfaction rates were all above 90.00%). During the semi-structured interviews, new graduated nurses reported that simulation-based training in the management of anaphylactic shock was extremely important and would guide them in clinical practice.Conclusions: The simulation-based training in anaphylactic shock is a potentially viable and effective method to teach new registered nurses to manage clinical incidents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tongtao Zhao ◽  
Hongxuan Lie ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Xiaohong Meng ◽  
...  

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinal degenerative disease leading to eventual blindness. When RP is combined with macular edema (ME), the visual impairment further worsens. We compared a modified sub-Tenon’s capsule injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and the intravenous infusion of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in the treatment of RP combined with ME (RP-ME) to assess their safety and efficacy in eliminating ME and restoring visual function. A phase I/II clinical trial enrolled 20 patients was conducted. All patients were followed up for 6 months. There were no severe adverse effects in both groups. In retinal morphological tests, the central macular thickness (CMT) in TA group significantly decreased at first week, first and second month after injection (p &lt; 0.05). The CMT in UCMSCs group significantly decreased at first month after infusion. The rate of reduction of CMT in TA group was significantly greater than that in UCMSCs group at second month (p &lt; 0.05). Reversely, the rate of reduction of CMT in UCMSCs group was significantly greater than that in TA group at sixth month (p &lt; 0.05). In visual functional test, although there were no significant differences in visual acuity or visual fields within each group or between groups, but the amplitude of P2 wave of flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) showed significant increasing in TA group at second month in UCMSCs group at sixth month (p &lt; 0.05). At 6th month, the rate of growth in the amplitude of P2 wave in USMCSs group was significantly greater than that in TA group (p &lt; 0.05). This study suggests both modified sub-Tenon’s capsule injection of TA and intravenous infusion of UCMSCs are safe for RP-ME patients. TA injection is more effective at alleviating ME while improving visual function in a short term. UCMSC intravenous infusion shows slow but persistent action in alleviating ME, and can improve the visual function for a longer time. These approaches can be applied separately or jointly depending on the disease condition for patients to benefit maximumly.Clinical Trial Registration:http://www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR-ONC-16008839


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eishin Nakamura ◽  
Shinji Takahashi ◽  
Shigetaka Matsunaga ◽  
Hiroaki Tanaka ◽  
Marie Furuta ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The upper extremities can be used as an infusion route during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnant women. This is a reasonable recommendation considering the characteristic circulation of pregnant women, but this method is not based on scientific evidence.Objective of the Review: We conducted a scoping review to determine whether the infusion route should be established above the diaphragm during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pregnant woman. Discussion: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs on the infusion of fluids in pregnant women after 20 weeks of gestation requiring establishment of an infusion route due to cardiac arrest, massive bleeding, intra-abdominal bleeding, cesarean section, severe infection, or thrombosis. In total, 3150 articles from electronic database were extracted, respectively. After title and abstract review, 265 articles were extracted, and 116 articles were extracted by full-text screening, which were included in the final analysis. The 116 articles included 78 studies on infusion for pregnant women. The location of the intravenous infusion route could be confirmed in only 17 studies, all of which used the upper extremity to secure the venous route. Conclusion: Pregnant women undergo significant physiological changes that differ from those of normal adults, because of pressure and drainage of the inferior vena cava and pelvic veins by the enlarged uterus. Therefore, despite a lack of evidence, it seems logical to secure the infusion route above the diaphragm when resuscitating a pregnant woman.


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