cesarean section
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Kirollos Wagdy Bandry ◽  
Hisham Abou-Taleb ◽  
Gehan S. Seifeldein ◽  
Mohamad Gaber Taha ◽  
Omran Khodary Qenawy

Abstract Background Postmenstrual spotting has recently been related to a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous cesarean section called "CS scar niche". There was no consensus regarding the gold standard method for the assessment of the niche. Recently, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise in the evaluation of the niche. Our study aims to assess the role of MRI in the evaluation of the CS scar niche characters and its association with post-menstrual spotting. Results A total of 65 patients with CS niche were prospectively included in this study and subdivided into two groups, according to presence or absence of postmenstrual spotting (Group A; 34 patients with postmenstrual spotting and Group B; 31 patients without spotting). All patients were examined using a 1.5 T MRI unit. CS scar niche volume was significantly higher among women with post-menstrual spotting (0.57 ± 0.07 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 (cm3); P < 0.001). Also, women with post-menstrual spotting have significantly higher scar length (9.38 ± 3.06 vs. 5.02 ± 2.10 (mm); P < 0.001), scar depth (6.95 ± 3.16 vs. 3.23 ± 0.99 (mm); P < 0.001), scar width (15.78 ± 3.94 vs. 9.87 ± 1.84 (mm); P < 0.001) in comparison to those without post-menstrual spotting. Scar depth (> 7.4 mm) had 81% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 88.7%. While scar width (> 12.8 mm) had 71% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 83.3%. Scar volume (> 0.15 cm3) had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 98.4%. Conclusion MRI measures (CS scar volume, depth, and width) are predictors for postmenstrual spotting in patients with CS scar niche, and scar volume is the most powerful predictor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 547-553
Xiao-Ling Cheng ◽  
Xiao-Yan Cao ◽  
Xiao-Qian Wang ◽  
Heng-Li Lin ◽  
Jin-Chuan Fang ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 341
Sandra Martín-Peláez ◽  
Naomi Cano-Ibáñez ◽  
Miguel Pinto-Gallardo ◽  
Carmen Amezcua-Prieto

The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics during pregnancy and/or lactation on the development of the gut microbiota of the C-section newborns. We selected experimental studies in online databases from their inception to October 2021. Of the 83 records screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The probiotics used belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus, or a combination of those, with dosages varying between 2 × 106 and 9 × 1011 CFU per day, and were consumed during pregnancy and/or lactation. Probiotic strains were combined with galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, or bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides in the synbiotic formulas. Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions led to beneficial gut microbiota in cesarean-delivered newborns, closer to that in vaginally delivered newborns, especially regarding Bifidobacterium colonization. This effect was more evident in breastfed infants. The studies indicate that this beneficial effect is achieved when the interventions begin soon after birth, especially the restoration of bifidobacterial population. Changes in the infant microbial ecosystem due to the interventions seem to continue after the end of the intervention in most of the studies. More interventional studies are needed to elucidate the optimal synbiotic combinations and the most effective strains and doses for achieving the optimal gut microbiota colonization of C-section newborns.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261906
Francesco D’Ambrosi ◽  
Nicola Cesano ◽  
Enrico Iurlaro ◽  
Alice Ronchi ◽  
Ilaria Giuditta Ramezzana ◽  

Introduction A potential complication of term prelabor rupture of membranes (term PROM) is chorioamnionitis with an increased burden on neonatal outcomes of chronic lung disease and cerebral palsy. The purpose of the study was to analyze the efficacy of a standing clinical protocol designed to identify women with term PROM at low risk for chorioamnionitis, who may benefit from expectant management, and those at a higher risk for chorioamnionitis, who may benefit from early induction. Material and methods This retrospective study enrolled all consecutive singleton pregnant women with term PROM. Subjects included women with at least one of the following factors: white blood cell count ≥ 15×100/μL, C-reactive protein ≥ 1.5 mg/dL, or positive vaginal swab for beta-hemolytic streptococcus. These women comprised the high risk (HR) group and underwent immediate induction of labor by the administration of intravaginal dinoprostone. Women with none of the above factors and those with a low risk for chorioamnionitis waited for up to 24 hours for spontaneous onset of labor and comprised the low-risk (LR) group. Results Of the 884 consecutive patients recruited, 65 fulfilled the criteria for HR chorioamnionitis and underwent immediate induction, while 819 were admitted for expectant management. Chorioamnionitis and Cesarean section rates were not significantly different between the HR and LR groups. However, the prevalence of maternal fever (7.7% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.04) and meconium-stained amniotic fluid was significantly higher in the HR group than in LR group (6.1% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.04). This study found an overall incidence of 4.2% for chorioamnionitis, 10.9% for Cesarean section, 0.5% for umbilical artery blood pH < 7.10, and 1.9% for admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Furthermore, no confirmed cases of neonatal sepsis were encountered. Conclusions A clinical protocol designed to manage, by immediate induction, only those women with term PROM who presented with High Risk factors for infection/inflammation achieved similar maternal and perinatal outcomes between such women and women without any risks who received expectant management. This reduced the need for universal induction of term PROM patients, thereby reducing the incidence of maternal and fetal complications without increasing the rate of Cesarean sections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-60
Bianca Elicker Rosin ◽  
André Luís Marcelo Albuquerque ◽  
Rodrigo Ribeiro e Silva ◽  
João Pedro Ribeiro Baptista ◽  
Carla Gisele Vaichulonis ◽  

Objective: To compare different levels of education with adverse perinatal outcomes in low-risk patients. Methodology: Cross-sectional study, puerperae were randomly selected, usual risk, attended in the public network, with single gestation. The evaluated puerperae were divided into 3 groups, according to education: primary or less, secondary and higher or more. The outcomes evaluated were cesarean section, neonatal ICU, low 1st minute Apgar, prematurity, and low birth weight. The calculation of the odds ratio had a 95% confidence interval. Results: the population was divided into 3 groups, 187 (52.9%) puerperal women with primary education or less, 437 (60.5%) patients with secondary education and 98 (13.6%) patients with higher education or more.  Maternal characteristics differed in terms of age, previous pregnancies, normal deliveries, previous cesarean sections, age of 1st pregnancy, number of prenatal visits, income, number of people living in the household, and tobacco use. In the newborn profile, there was a difference only regarding cesarean sections. After calculating the odds ratio, it was seen that patients with primary education or less had a lower propensity to perform a cesarean section (0.511 95%CI 0.290-0.900), as well as patients with secondary education (0.530 95%CI 0.322-0.873), both compared to the population with higher education or more. In the other outcomes, no significance was observed. Conclusion: Primary and secondary education proved to be protective factors for cesarean section. No difference was found regarding prematurity, low birth weight, need for neonatal ICU and low 1st minute Apgar score.

Doan Thi Thuy Duong ◽  
Colin Binns ◽  
Andy Lee ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  
Ngoc Minh Pham ◽  

Background: Breastfeeding brings benefits to both mothers and children in the short term and long term. Unnecessary cesarean sections can bring risks to both parties. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding intention and cesarean delivery. Methods: We analyzed data collected from 554 single mothers who delivered in Dong Anh General District Hospital or Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Vietnam, in 2020–2021. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding intention and cesarean delivery for nonmedical reasons was adjusted for maternal education, maternal age, parity, history of fetal loss, having at least eight antenatal contacts, hospital of delivery, child sex, and birth weight. Results: Antenatally, 34.8% (184/529) of mothers intended to breastfeed exclusively until 6 months and 30.8% (84/274) underwent cesarean section for a nonmedical reason. After adjusting for other factors, mothers who intended to breastfeed exclusively until 6 months were less likely to undergo cesarean delivery for nonmedical reasons (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.96, p = 0.034). Conclusions: This study adds to the growing evidence related to unnecessary cesarean sections and routine over-medicalization of normal birth in the urban areas of Vietnam. The association between breastfeeding intentions and a lower rate of cesarean section suggests that education on breastfeeding could be a useful intervention for reducing the rate of cesarean sections and improving maternal and child health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hanxiang Sun ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Shijia Huang ◽  
Xiaosong Liu ◽  
Guohua Li ◽  

ObjectiveTo study the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART).MethodsThis hospital-based retrospective cohort study of women with live singleton births through ART in China from January 2015 to August 2020 included 3043 Chinese women. According to the latest BMI classification standard of Asian women, the women included in this study were classified as underweight (BMI &lt;18.5 kg/m2), normal (BMI 18.5 to &lt;23 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 23 to &lt;27.5 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). We compared the risk of adverse outcomes of different pre-pregnancy BMI values of women with singleton pregnancies conceived through ART. We used Logistic regression analysis to estimate the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes.ResultsOur findings showed that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy through ART are more likely to have a cesarean section, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia, regardless of whether confounding factors are adjusted. Moreover, pre-pregnancy obesity was more associated with a higher risk of these adverse outcomes than pre-pregnancy overweight. In addition, neonates from women who had obesity before pregnancy through ART were more likely to have macrosomia; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.004 (1.693-5.330).ConclusionsOur research showed that women who had pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity with singleton pregnancies through ART were more likely to have a cesarean section, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia. Moreover, neonates from women who had obesity before pregnancy were more likely to have macrosomia.

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