Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) mostly affects young people. So far, endovascular treatment (EVT) has not been shown to be beneficial in CVT, partially because venous EVT tools are not yet fully optimized, and therefore EVT is only used as a rescue treatment in rare cases. Identifying a subgroup of CVT patients that could benefit from EVT is challenging, given the milder course of disease compared with acute ischemic stroke, the paucity of data on prognostic factors (both in the clinical and imaging domain), and the lack of consensus on what constitutes 'technical success' in CVT EVT. In this review, we discuss the major obstacles that are encountered when trying to identify CVT patients that may benefit from EVT, and propose a roadmap that could help to overcome these challenges in the near future.
Cerebral venous thrombosis accounts for 0.5–1% of all cerebrovascular events and is one type of stroke that affects the veins and cerebral sinuses. Females are more affected than males, as they may have risk factors, such as pregnancy, first period after pregnancy, treatment with oral contraceptives treatment with hormonal replacement, or hereditary thrombophilia. This neurological pathology may endanger a patient’s life. However, it must be suspected in its acute phase, when it presents with variable clinical characteristics, so that special treatment can be initiated to achieve a favorable outcome with partial or complete functional recovery. The case study describes the data and the treatment of two patients with confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis with various localizations and associated risk factors, who were admitted to the neurology department of the Sf. Apostol Andrei Emergency Hospital in Constanta. The first patient was 40 years old and affected by sigmoid sinus and right lateral sinus thrombosis, inferior sagittal sinus, and right sinus thrombosis, associated with right temporal subacute cortical and subcortical hemorrhage, which appeared following a voluntary abortion. The second case was a patient aged 25 who was affected by left parietal cortical vein thrombosis, associated with ipsilateral superior parietal subcortical venous infarction, which appeared following labor. The data are strictly observational and offer a perspective on clinical manifestations and clinical and paraclinical investigations, including the treatment of young patients who had been diagnosed with cerebral venous thrombosis and admitted to the neurology department.
Background Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is one of the important causes of stroke in young adults. It is caused by complete or partial thrombotic occlusion of the cerebral venous sinuses or cortical veins. There are many risk factors associated with this condition, out of which common ones are oral contraceptives use, genetic, or acquired thrombophilias, infections, malignancy, pregnancy, and puerperium. We aimed to study the prevalence of inherited procoagulant states in patients with CVT and correlate these states with the severity and outcome.
Materials and Methods It was a prospective observational study of 2 years duration in which 75 patients, 18 to 50 years old, with confirmed CVT were included. The baseline data, imaging findings were recorded for all the patients. After 3 months of the onset of CVT, anticoagulants were stopped and a procoagulant test was done for all patients. Severity was assessed by Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) at the onset of illness. Functional assessments were done using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation, at 7 days, 6 weeks, and 3 months.
Results In the present study, any procoagulant state was seen in 9 out of 75 patients with CVT that accounted for 12% of the total population. There was no significant correlation between the presence of procoagulant states and severity of illness as assessed by GCS at presentation. The presence of any thrombophilia did not affect the final outcome at 7 days, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.532, p = 0.944 and p = 0.965 respectively) as assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS).
Conclusion Inherited procoagulant states are an important risk factor for CVT. The presence of an inherited procoagulant state does not have any correlation with the disease severity and outcome.
Although the risk of thromboembolism is increased in patients with
ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare complication in
a patient with ulcerative colitis. We herein present an unusual case of
a young female with Ulcerative Colitis under treatment diagnosed with
cerebral venous thrombosis and bilateral thalamic infarction
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare condition involving various symptoms that is mainly seen in younger adults. The most commonly involved are the superior sagittal sinus, lateral sinus, and simoid sinus. About 1% of all ischemic strokes are considered CVT. It is seen 3-fold more in young women. The incidence was estimated to be approx. 1/1000000. Cerebral venous sinuses are superficial and deep spaces, and they have vital functions. There are many symptoms. The most common complaint is headache (89%). Studies reported many different clinical symptoms. Neurological signs including motor and sensorial losses, impaired consciousness, speech disorder, epileptic seizures, visual problems (hemianopia, nystagmus, diplopia, and papilledema), and cranial nerve signs may be seen. The diagnosis is made primarily by suspecting the clinical condition and radiological presentation of thrombosis. The most basic diagnostic method is cranial imaging. Anticoagulants are the main method of treatment. The prognosis has improved over the last years thanks to early diagnosis.