Ulcerative Colitis
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Author(s):  
Nir Bar ◽  
Yoav Avraham ◽  
Vadim Dubinsky ◽  
Nathaniel A Cohen ◽  
Guy A Weiss ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction Pouchitis, often developing after colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis, is highly responsive to antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole are commonly used, often for prolonged periods. We report patterns of antibiotic use, adverse events, and resistant infections in patients with pouchitis with long-term antibiotic treatment. Methods In a cohort of patients following pouch surgery, a retrospective nested case-control analysis was performed between 2010 and 2017. Ultra-long-term use, defined as the top 10% of users, was compared with the remaining users. Patterns of antibiotic use, adverse events, and resistant infections were analyzed. Results The cohort included 205 patients with UC, of whom 167 (81.5%) used antibiotics for pouchitis, predominantly ciprofloxacin. The long-term antibiotic use rate was 18% and 42% at 5 and 20 years postsurgery, respectively. Mean antibiotic use of at least 1, 3, and 6 months/year was noted in 54 (26.3%), 31 (15.1%), and 14 (6.8%) patients, respectively. Twenty-two (13.2%) and 4 (2.4%) patients reported mild and severe (transient) adverse events, respectively, without mortalities, tendinopathies or arrhythmias. Adverse event rates for ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were 1per 10,000 and 6 per 10,000 use-days, respectively. Longer, but not ultra-long antibiotic use, was associated with mild adverse events. There was no association between antibiotic use and resistant infections. Thirteen (6.3%) patients required ileostomy procedures—more commonly in the ultra-long-term antibiotic users. Conclusions Patients with pouchitis may require prolonged antibiotic treatment, reflecting clinical benefit and favorable safety profile. Few adverse events and resistant infections were observed with long-term antibiotics use. However, resistant microbial strains selection, which are potentially transmittable, warrants consideration of different therapeutic alternatives.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aina Lask ◽  
Matthias Biebl ◽  
Luca Dittrich ◽  
Andreas Fischer ◽  
Andreas Adler ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Colectomy with transanal ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (taIPAA) is a surgical technique that can be used to treat benign colorectal disease. Ulcerative colitis is the most frequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and although pharmacological therapy has improved, colectomy rates reach up to 15%. The objective of this study was to determine anastomotic leakage rates and treatment after taIPAA as well as short- and long-term pouch function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database of all patients undergoing taIPAA at an academic tertiary referral center in Germany, between 01/03/2015 and 31/08/2019. Patients with indications other than ulcerative colitis or with adjuvant chemotherapy following colectomy for colorectal carcinoma were excluded for short- and long-term follow up due to diverging postoperative care yet considered for evaluation of anastomotic leakage. Results A total of 22 patients undergoing taIPAA during the study time-window were included in analysis. Median age at the time of surgery was 32 ± 12.5 (14–54) years. Two patients developed an anastomotic leakage at 11 days (early anastomotic leakage) and 9 months (late anastomotic leakage) after surgery, respectively. In both patients, pouches could be preserved with a multimodal approach. Twenty patients out of 22 met the inclusion criteria for short and long term follow-up. Data on short-term pouch function could be obtained in 14 patients and showed satisfactory pouch function with only four patients reporting intermittent incontinence at a median stool frequency of 9–10 times per day. In the long-term we observed an inflammation or “pouchitis” in 11 patients and a pouch failure in one patient. Conclusion Postoperative complication rates in patients with benign colorectal disease remain an area of concern for surgical patient safety. In this pilot study on 22 selected patients, taIPAA was associated with two patients developing anastomotic leakage. Future large-scale validation studies are required to determine the safety and feasibility of taIPAA in patients with ulcerative colitis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu-Feng Liu ◽  
Guo-Chao Niu ◽  
Chen-Yang Li ◽  
Jin-Bo Guo ◽  
Jia Song ◽  
...  

Background: The progression of liver disorders is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel disease through the gut-liver axis. However, no direct evidence showed the mechanisms of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the development of liver fibrosis per se. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of UC on liver fibrosis and its potential mechanism in the experimental model.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into five groups (n = 10 per group) to receive either drinking water (control), 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), olive oil, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or DSS + CCl4 for 4 cycles. Blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Colons were excised for the evaluation of colon length and morphological score. Liver, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were collected for histopathological staining, expression analysis, and bacterial translocation assay to evaluate the inflammation, fibrosis, the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and gut barrier function.Results: DSS caused severe colitis in mice treated or treated with CCl4, as evident from the elevation of disease activity index (DAI), histological abnormalities, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A). Histopathological staining revealed that DSS treatment aggravated the CCl4-induced extracellular matrix deposition, liver fibrosis, and inflammation in mice. Additionally, biochemical and expression analysis indicated the DSS treatment caused the increase of hydroxyproline and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as the abnormal liver function indexes in CCl4-induced mice. Gut barrier function was impaired in DSS- and DSS + CCl4-treated mice, manifesting as the increase in bacterial translocation and lipopolysaccharide level, and the reduction in tight junction proteins (occluding, claudin-1 and ZO-1) expression. Further, the activations of HSCs and TLR4 signaling pathway were observed after DSS + CCl4 treatment, presenting with the increase in expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β, collagen type I, collagen type II, TIMP-2, TLR4, TRAF6, and NF-κB p65, and a decrease in GFAP and MMP-2 expression.Conclusion: The present study verified that UC aggravated CCl4-induced liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice through the gut-liver axis. Gut barrier dysfunction in UC leads to bacterial translocation and elevated lipopolysaccharide, which may promote the activation of TLR4 signaling and HSCs in the liver.


Epigenomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bing Li ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Lixiang Li ◽  
Yu Yu ◽  
Xiang Gu ◽  
...  

Aims: Few circRNAs have been thoroughly explored in ulcerative colitis (UC). Materials & methods: Microarrays and qualitative real-time PCR were used to detect and confirm dysregulated circRNAs associated with UC. Functional analysis was performed to explore the roles. Results: A total of 580 circRNAs and 87 miRNAs were simultaneously dysregulated in both inflamed and noninflamed UC colonic mucosa compared with healthy controls. Accordingly, hsa_circ_0001021 was significantly downregulated in patients with UC and was related to Mayo scores. Clinical samples and cell experiments revealed that hsa_circ_0001021 was expressed in epithelial cells and correlated with ZO-1, occludin and CLDN-2. Moreover, hsa_circ_0001021 sponged miR-224-5p to upregulate smad4 and increased ZO-1 and occludin. Conclusion: Hsa_circ_0001021 is related to UC severity and regulates epithelial barrier function via sponging miR-224-5p.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Zeng-Ping Kang ◽  
Meng-Xue Wang ◽  
Tian-Tian Wu ◽  
Duan-Yong Liu ◽  
Hai-Yan Wang ◽  
...  

Curcumin has shown good efficacy in mice with experimental colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis, but the mechanism of action through the regulation of M1/M2 macrophage polarization has not been elaborated. The ulcerative colitis was modeled by dextran sulfate sodium; colitis mice were orally administrated with curcumin (10 mg/kg/day) or 5-ASA (300 mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days. After curcumin treatment, the body weight, colon weight and length, colonic weight index, and histopathological damage in colitis mice were effectively improved. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL-2 in the colonic tissues of colitis mice decreased significantly, while anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-33 and IL-10 increased significantly. Importantly, macrophage activation was suppressed and M1/M2 macrophage polarization was regulated in colitis mice, and the percentage of CD11b+F4/80+ and CD11b+F4/80+TIM-1+ and CD11b+F4/80+iNOS+ decreased significantly and CD11b+F4/80+CD206+ and CD11b+F4/80+CD163+ increased significantly. Additionally, curcumin significantly downregulated CD11b+F4/80+TLR4+ macrophages and the protein levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κBp65, p38MAPK, and AP-1 in colitis mice. Our study suggested that curcumin exerted therapeutic effects in colitis mice by regulating the balance of M1/M2 macrophage polarization and TLRs signaling pathway.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (37) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryo Kutsuna ◽  
Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama ◽  
Junko Tomida ◽  
Yoshiaki Kawamura

Paraclostridium bifermentans subsp. muricolitidis strain PAGU 1678 T was isolated from rat feces and has the ability to exacerbate pathosis in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the 3,471,060-bp chromosome of strain PAGU 1678 T .


Author(s):  
Shubhra Mishra ◽  
Anupam Kumar Singh ◽  
Chirag Kopp ◽  
Anuraag Jena ◽  
Vishal Sharma

Author(s):  
Michele Francesco Chiappetta ◽  
Anna Viola ◽  
Mauro Mastronardi ◽  
Laura Turchini ◽  
Sonia Carparelli ◽  
...  

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