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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-23
Zaleha Kamaludin ◽  
Alaa Siddig ◽  
Najib Majdi Yaacob ◽  
Alfred K. Lam ◽  
Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman

Biomarker identification is imperative for invasive breast carcinoma, which is more aggressive and associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis in younger patients (<45 years) than in older patients (>50 years). The current study aimed to investigate angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein expression in breast tissue from young patients with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was applied in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of breast carcinoma tissue from young patients aged <45 years at the time of diagnosis. Both proteins were expressed in the majority of cases. The highest frequency of positive ANGPTL4 and IGF-1 expression was observed in the luminal A subtype, whereas the HER2-overexpression subtype exhibited the lowest expression frequency for both proteins. There was no significant association between ANGPTL4 (p = 0.897) and IGF-1 (p = 0.091) expression and molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma. The histological grade was a significant predictor of ANGPTL4 expression (grade 1 vs. grade 3, adjusted odds ratio = 12.39, p = 0.040). Therefore, ANGPTL-4 and IGF-1 expressions are common in young breast carcinoma tissue. There is a potential use of them as biomarkers in breast carcinoma.

2022 ◽  
Stefania Zambrano ◽  
Barbara Parma ◽  
Valeria Morabito ◽  
Silvia Borini ◽  
Roberta Romaniello ◽  

Abstract Background: In recent decades some studies described the frequent co-occurrence of celiac disease autoimmunity and/or overt celiac disease in patients with autism. Therefore, it was suggested that celiac disease could play a possible role in the etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder. However, several other studies have not confirmed this association. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential association between autism spectrum disorder and celiac disease.Methods: We prospectively collected data from an Italian cohort of 223 children at the time of their clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in the 2019-2020 period. A serological celiac disease screening was performed and data were available for 196 patients; male (M):female (F) ratio = 4.4:1; median age = 3.6 years; age range = 1.6–12.8 years. Full-blown celiac disease was established according to the diagnostic algorithm of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) 2012 or 2019 guidelines. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the celiac disease seroprevalence and prevalence in our autism spectrum disorder cohort and in the Italian healthy pediatric population studied by Gatti et al. to highlight the possible differences between the two groups.Results: A not statistically significant difference between the celiac disease seroprevalence in our autism spectrum disorder cohort (4.08%) and Gatti’s Italian healthy group (2.22%) was found, p = 0.0810; OR = 1.871. A similar result emerged for overt celiac disease prevalences (2.24% versus 1.58%, respectively), p = 0.2862; OR = 1.431.Conclusions: Our data validates a weakness of association between autism spectrum disorder and celiac disease. Regular screening for celiac disease in young patients with autism spectrum disorder is not strongly recommended to a greater extent than in the general population.

Abstract Number of people over 65 years is continuously increasing and represents an ever growing proportion of population even in Hungary. Medical treatment of the elderly implies a massive burden for the healthcare system. Special knowledge is required to provide an appropriate medical care for the elderly. During the ageing process, several changes accumulate in the body and several chronic diseases develop. Function of parenchymal organs is impaired, healing process is slower, clinical manifestations of diseases are not so prominent, the diagnosis is often difficult to establish. Moreover, treatment possibilities also differ, because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs are different from that of young patients. Communication with older patients is also cumbersome, participation of a relative or caregiver at consultation can be useful. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death of adults over the age of 65. Among these diseases congestive heart failure, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, atrial fibrillation have the greatest significance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 43-47
A. K. Ovsyannikova ◽  
I. A. Belyaeva ◽  
R. B. Galenok ◽  
O. D. Rymar

Despite the fact that most young patients with hyperglycemia are diagnosed with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes, up to 10 % of all cases of the disease are MODY diabetes. The most common types of MODY are GCK-MODY and HNF1A-MODY, therefore the investigation of their clinical and laboratory characteristics, including lipid spectrum indicators is of high clinical significance. The aim of this research work was to study the values of lipid spectrum indicators in patients diagnosed with GCK-MODY and HNF1A-MODY at the age from 18 to 45 years. Lipid profile parameters were investigated in 56 patients aged 18 to 45 years with diagnosed GCK-MODY and HNF1A-MODY by molecular genetic tests, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the indicators, however, in patients with HNF1A-MODY, the decrease in HDL-C is determined significantly more often than in GCKMODY. Thus, the group of persons with MODY differs in the level of lipid profile indices depending on the type of MODY.

Monica Macrì ◽  
Elena Toniato ◽  
Giovanna Murmura ◽  
Giuseppe Varvara ◽  
Felice Festa

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the changes in the mean bone density values of the midpalatal suture in 392 young patients treated with the Rapid Palatal Expander appliance according to sex, gender, vertical and sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods. The evaluations were performed using the low-dose protocol cone-beam computed tomography scans at t0 (preoperatively) and t1 (1 year after the beginning of the therapy). The region of interest was used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units (HU) in the area between the maxillary incisors. Results. CBCT scan data of 196 females and 196 males (mean age of 11,7 years) showed homogeneous and similar density values of the MPS at T0 (547.59 HU - 565.85 HU) and T1 (542.31 - 554.20 HU). Class III skeletal individuals showed a significant higher BD than the II class group at T0, but not at T1. Females showed significantly higher BD than males at t0 and t1. No significant differences were found between the other groups and between two-time points in terms of bone density values of the MPS. Conclusions. Females and III class groups showed significantly higher bone density values than males and II class, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found from T0 to T1 in any groups, suggesting that a similar rate of suture reorganization occurs after the use of the RPE, following reorganization and bone deposition along with the MPS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 11-19
D. E. Ivanoshchuk ◽  
A. K. Ovsyannikova ◽  
S. V. Mikhailova ◽  
E. V. Shakhtshneider ◽  
E. S. Valeev ◽  

Maturity onset diabetes of the young is a dominantly inherited form of monogenic diabetes, diagnosed mainly before the age of 35 years. Mutations in the HNF1A and HNF4A genes are associated with diabetes mellitus of the HNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY subtypes, respectively. These two forms of MODY are characterized by dyslipidemia in addition to impaired glucose metabolism due to the altered function HNF1A and HNF4A proteins. The aim of this study was a genetic analysis of young patients with the MODY phenotype and dyslipidemia with a burdened family history. Material and methods. The probands underwent targeted DNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq NGS System. The target panel included the coding regions and splicing sites of MODY-associated genes: HNF4A, GCK, HNF1A, PDX1, HNF1B, NEUROD1, KLF11, CEL, PAX4, INS, BLK, KCNJ11, ABCC8, and APPL1. Results. A heterozygous single nucleotide deletion NM_000457.4: c.153del (3’rule) was found in proband P1 in the HNF4A gene. In proband P2, single nucleotide deletion NM_000545.8: c.335del (3 ‘rule) in the HNF1A gene was detected in a heterozygous state. Both variants are located in the coding parts of the genes, led to a shift in the reading frame and have not been described in the literature and databases earlier. Conclusions. Taking into account the phenotypic features of probands, we assume that the variants NM_000545.8: c.335del (rule 3) in the HNF1A gene and NM_000457.4: c.153del (rule 3) of the HNF4A gene are associated with different MODY subtypes in these individuals. After verification of MODY-HNF1A and MODY-HNF4A diagnosis, it is necessary to monitor the lipid profile parameters (total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides) and prescribe appropriate drug therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 715-725
S. V. Pichugova ◽  
V. A. Chereshnev ◽  
Ya. B. Beikin

Introduction. The prevalence of andrological diseases among adolescents and young adults resulting in lowered reproductive potential has been noted to progressively increase. At the same time, the number of couples starting to manage reproductive issues after 35–40 years of age highlighting the onset of male androgen deficiency continues to rise. Therefore, the analysis of spermogram as the key element in assessing male reproductive potential is better to conduct at different age periods of man's life.Aim: to compare spermogram parameters in different age groups of patients with reproductive pathology.Materials and Мethods. The analysis of spermograms in adolescents with left-sided grade II–III varicocele aged 17 years and in infertile males aged 22–48 years was performed. Semen analysis was conducted in accordance with the standards of the 5 th edition of the World Health Organization and included the following parameters: semen volume (ml), sperm concentration (million/ml), total sperm count (million), acidity, viscosity, progressive motility, total motility, viability, morphology, detected mucus, leukocytes, amyloid bodies, lecithin grains as well as sperm aggregation and agglutination. The stained preparations were used to assess the morphology of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis cells. According to the spermogram data obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: normozoospermia, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia. Statistical analysis was performed by using Statistica 10.0 software (StatSoft Inc., USA). The normality distribution was assessed using the χ2 test. Quantitative parameters were presented as arithmetic means and standard deviations (M ± SD). Assessing significance of differences was performed by using the Student's t-test, whereas inter-parameter correlation relations were analyzed by using the linear Pearson's correlation coefficient. A significance level between inter-group parameters was set at p < 0.05.Results. It was found that adolescents with varicocele vs. adult men had significantly decreased ejaculate volume. In particular, the average ejaculate volume in adolescents and adult men was 2.32 ± 1.22 ml and 3.50 ± 1.44 ml, respectively, so that the larger number of young patients were noted to have ejaculate volume below 1.5 ml. Compared to young subjects, aged patients had decreased sperm concentration (35.88 ± 25.74 versus 72.20 ± 49.32 million/ml) and total sperm count (120.58 ± 91.72 versus 173.07 ± 163.92 million). Young patients were found to have significantly superior data in all categories of sperm motility, whereas infertile men were diagnosed with impaired sperm motility. In particular, adolescents were featured with the average number of spermatozoa displaying fast and slow translational movement comprising 17.12 ± 11.04 % and 29.30 ± 12.29 %, respectively, the proportion of progressive motility spermatozoa was 46.20 ± 19.82 %. In contrast, similar parameters in adult men were 5.10 ± 6.36 %, 19.80 ± 9.61 %, and 24.95 ± 11.23 %, respectively. In infertile men prevalence of lacked spermatozoa with rapid forward movement was 46 (46.0 %), in adolescents – 8 (8.6%), whereas rate of immotile spermatozoa in infertile men, on average, accounted for 53.10 ± 14.56 %, in adolescents – 34.40 ± 21.83 %. In addition, adolescents with varicocele had significantly fewer spermatozoa with normal morphology – 14.14 ± 8.06 % (in adult men – 30.08 ± 17.94 %), there were more abundant defects in the sperm head – 58.01 ± 12.43 % (in men – 48.83 ± 18.95 %) and flagella – 17.24 ± 6.31 % (in men – 10.29 ± 6.21 %). The data obtained showed that adolescents were more often diagnosed with normozoospermia – in 49 (52.7 %) cases, in infertile men – in 12 (12.0 %) cases, whereas in aged men asthenozoospermia was detected in 82 (82.0 %) cases, in adolescents – 5 (5.4 %) cases.Conclusion. The abnormalities in the spermogram revealed in adolescents may be associated with unestablished spermatogenesis. Normozoospermia more common in adolescents with varicocele may evidence about preserved reproductive potential. Impaired sperm motility in aged patients seems to be related to the formation of oxidative stress and damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species due to combined age-related changes, cumulation of the negative effects of environmental and lifestyle factors, as well as comorbidities.

Chemotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Natalia Cenfra ◽  
Gianfranco Lapietra ◽  
Salvatore Perrone ◽  
Maria Teresa Voso ◽  
Mariadomenica Divona ◽  

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia in adults. In spite of the most recent discoveries about the molecular landscape of this disease, the treatment of elderly and unfit young patients continues to be a great challenge. The hypomethylating agents (HMA) still represent an effective therapeutic option for these categories, especially for the low-risk subgroups. We report the case of a young patient with NPM1<sup>mut</sup>-AML who underwent a first cycle of intensive induction treatment, achieving a complete remission, but suffered from a serious life-threatening neurologic toxicity. Due to the ineligibility to further lines of intensive chemotherapy, we decided to consolidate the response with azacitidine, administered according to the regular schedule. The minimal residual disease (MRD), monitored through the NPM1 mutation at diagnosis, progressively decreased and became undetectable after 36 cycles of hypomethylating therapy. After 1 year from discontinuation of azacitidine, MRD remains undetectable. Therefore, HMA might still represent a feasible and effective option for patients with low-risk AML, especially when the standard chemotherapy is not indicated, or as maintenance therapy in nontransplantable patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Riccardo Dalle Grave ◽  
Simona Calugi

Several clinical services offer eclectic multidisciplinary treatments with no evidence of efficacy and effectiveness for adolescents with eating disorders. These treatments are usually based on the ‘disease model’ of eating disorders. The model postulates that eating disorders are the result of a specific disease (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or other eating disorders), and patients are considered not to have control of their illness. Therefore, they need the external control of parents and/or health professionals. In this model, the patients adopt a passive role in the treatment. On the contrary, enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) for adolescents is based on a ‘psychological model’ of eating disorders. Patients are helped to understand the psychological mechanisms that maintain their eating disorder and are ‘actively’ involved in the recovery process. Clinical studies showed that more than 60% of adolescent patients who complete the treatment achieve a full response at 12-month follow-up. The treatment is well accepted by young people and their parents, and its collaborative nature is well suited to ambivalent young patients who may be particularly concerned about control issues and for parents who cannot participate in all treatment sessions.

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