Younger Adults
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Devita ◽  
Elisa Di Rosa ◽  
Pamela Iannizzi ◽  
Sara Bianconi ◽  
Sara A. Contin ◽  

Literature about the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently focusing on the potential cognitive and neuropsychiatric sequelae observed in individuals receiving intensive care unit (ICU) treatments. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the differences in cognitive and psychological sequelae of COVID-19 between younger and older adults, regardless of being admitted to the ICU or not. The study involved 299 recovered individuals (from 18 to 90 years old), who underwent a comprehensive cognitive and psychological assessment. Linear regression models were conducted separately for Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) scores to investigate the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics on them. Separate linear regression models were then applied sorting participants by age: younger adults (<65 years) and older adults (≥65 years). In the whole sample, PCL scores were predicted by the intensity of care received, by being intubated, and by the persistence of cough after 1 month after hospitalization. Only age had instead an effect on cognition. In younger adults, PCL scores were predicted by the presence of neurological symptoms, by the intensity of care received, and by being intubated; MoCA scores were only predicted by the intensity of care received. No significant associations were found in older adults. Psychological negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly affect individuals under 65 years old, who also subjectively report cognitive sequelae associated with the infection. Individuals over 65 years old, instead, seem to be free from psychological and cognitive difficulties due to COVID-19.

Oral ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 281-289
Louis Jacob ◽  
Jae-Il Shin ◽  
Igor Grabovac ◽  
Josep Maria Haro ◽  
Ai Koyanagi ◽  

The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between diabetes and dental caries in a representative sample of 23,089 adults residing in Spain. Data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 were analysed. Diabetes (independent variable) and dental caries (dependent variable) were evaluated through a self-reported questionnaire. The association between diabetes and dental caries in the overall sample was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of dental caries was 20.6% in the overall population and was significantly higher in men and in young (≤40 years) and middle-aged adults (41–65 years) than in women and older adults (>65 years), respectively. After adjusting for control variables, there was a positive and significant association between diabetes and dental caries in the overall population (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.15–1.46). The relationship between diabetes and dental caries was particularly strong in women (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.22–1.71) and in adults aged ≤40 years (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.05–3.05). In conclusion, in this large representative sample of Spanish adults, diabetes was associated with having a higher prevalence of dental caries, with females and younger adults at greatest risk. Patients with diabetes and dental practitioners should be aware of these associations and act accordingly. Future research should aim to investigate the mediating factors involved in the observed association between diabetes and dental caries.

10.2196/28349 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (9) ◽  
pp. e28349
Chris Keyworth ◽  
Rory O'Connor ◽  
Leah Quinlivan ◽  
Christopher J Armitage

Background The volitional help sheet (VHS) for self-harm equips people with a means of responding automatically to triggers for self-harm with coping strategies. Although there is some evidence of its efficacy, improving acceptability and making the intervention available in a web-based format may be crucial to increasing effectiveness and reach. Objective This study aims to use the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability (TFA) to explore the acceptability of the VHS, examine for whom and under what circumstances this intervention is more or less acceptable, and develop a series of recommendations for how the VHS can be used to support people in reducing repeat self-harm. Methods We explored acceptability in two phases. First, our patient and public involvement partners evaluated the original VHS from a lived experience perspective, which was subsequently translated into a web-based format. Second, a representative sample of adults in the United Kingdom who had previously self-harmed were recruited via a YouGov survey (N=514) and were asked to rate the acceptability of the VHS based on the seven constructs of the TFA, namely, affective attitude, burden, perceived effectiveness, ethicality, intervention coherence, opportunity costs, and self-efficacy. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-tailed t tests, and binary logistic regression. A directed content analysis approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Participants in the web-based survey rated the VHS as positive (affective attitude; t457=4.72; P<.001); were confident using it (self-efficacy; t457=9.54; P<.001); felt they did not have to give up any benefits, profits, or values when using it (opportunity costs; t439=−15.51; P<.001); understood it and how it worked (intervention coherence; t464=11.90; P<.001); and were confident that it would achieve its purpose (perceived effectiveness; t466=2.04; P=.04). The TFA domain burden appeared to be an important indicator of acceptability. Lower levels of perceived burden when using the VHS tool were more prevalent among younger adults aged 18-24 years (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.50-8.78), people of White ethnic background (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.06-8.613), and people without a long-term health condition (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.01-2.30). Perceived modifications to further improve acceptability included improved formatting (burden), the feature to add new situations and responses or amend existing ones (ethicality), and clearer instructions and further detail about the purpose of the VHS (intervention coherence). Conclusions Our findings show high levels of acceptability among some people who have previously self-harmed, particularly among younger adults, people of White ethnic backgrounds, and people without long-term health conditions. Future research should aim to improve acceptability among older adults, people from minority ethnic groups, and people with long-term health conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Denis Schmartz ◽  
Raouf Sghaier ◽  
Paul Bernard ◽  
Jean François Fils ◽  
Thomas Fuchs-Buder

Abstract Background An increasing number of patients older than 80 years are undergoing anesthesia, but little information is available regarding pharmacodynamic effects of myorelaxants in this population. This study aims to compare the time course of rocuronium neuromuscular block in patients ≥ 80 years with those of younger adults. Methods Under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and sufentanil, time course of a bolus of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg neuromuscular block was assessed with acceleromyography in patients ≥ 80 and in patients 20–50 years old. Onset time, clinical duration, duration until 90% and 100% recovery of baseline were determined. Results Data from 32 patients were analyzed, 16 were ≥ 80 years and 16 were 20–50 years old. Demographic data are shown in Table 1. In the group ≥ 80, onset time was 190 s ± 46 s compared to 123 s ± 40 s in the group 20–50, P < 0.001 and the clinical duration was 52 [48–69.5] min and 36 [34–41] min, respectively, P < 0.001. Duration to 90% recovery of baseline was 77.5 [71–88.5] min and duration to 100% recovery of baseline was 91.2 [82.2–98] min in patients ≥ 80 years and the corresponding values in the patients 20–50 years old were 53.5 [49–55.5] min and 59.5 [56.5–70.25] min, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusion Compared to younger adults rocuronium shifted in patients ≥ 80 years from a rapid onset, intermediate acting compound to a slower onset, long-acting compound. Trial registration identifier: NCT03551652 (29/05/2018).

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 4124
Leandra Koletzko ◽  
Elisabeth Klucker ◽  
Thu Giang Le Thi ◽  
Simone Breiteneicher ◽  
Raquel Rubio-Acero ◽  

Background: COVID-19-associated restrictions impact societies. We investigated the impact in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Methods: Pediatric (pIBD) and adult patients and pIBD parents completed validated questionnaires for self-perceived stress (Perceived Stress Questionnaire, PSQ) and quality of life from July to October 2020 (1st survey) and March to April 2021 (2nd survey). Analyses were stratified by age groups (6–20, >20–40, >40–60, >60 years). Perceived risk of infection and harm from COVID-19 were rated on a 1–7 scale. An index for severe outcome (SIRSCO) was calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Of 820 invited patients, 504 (62%, 6–85 years) patients and 86 pIBD parents completed the 1st, thereof 403 (80.4%) the 2nd survey. COVID-19 restrictions resulted in cancelled doctoral appointments (26.7%), decreased physical activity, increased food intake, unintended weight gain and sleep disturbance. PSQ increased with disease activity. Elderly males rated lower compared to females or younger adults. PSQ in pIBD mothers were comparable to moderate/severe IBD adults. Infection risk and harm were perceived high in 36% and 75.4%. Multivariable logistic models revealed associations of higher perceived risk with >3 household members, job conditions and female gender, and of perceived harm with higher SIRSCO, unintended weight change, but not with gender or age. Cancelled clinic-visits were associated with both. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies prior 2nd infection wave were positive in 2/472 (0.4%). Conclusions: IBD patients report a high degree of stress and self-perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 with major differences related to gender and age. Low seroprevalence may indicate altered immune response.

2021 ◽  
Vanessa C. Irsik ◽  
Ingrid Johnsrude ◽  
Bjorn Herrmann

Fluctuating background masking sounds facilitate speech intelligibility by providing speech ‘glimpses’ (masking release). Older adults benefit less from glimpses, but masking release is typically investigated using isolated sentences. Recent work indicates that naturalistic speech (spoken stories) may qualitatively alter speech-in-noise listening. Moreover, neural sensitivity to different amplitude envelopes profiles (ramped vs. damped) changes with age, but whether this impacts speech listening is unknown. In three experiments, we investigate how masking release in younger and older adults differs for masked disconnected sentences and stories, and how intelligibility varies with masker temporal profile. Intelligibility was generally greater for damped compared to ramped maskers for both age groups and speech types. Masking release was reduced in older relative to younger adults for disconnected sentences (Experiment 1), and stories with a randomized sentence order (Experiment 3). When listening to stories with a coherent narrative, older adults demonstrated equal (Experiment 3) or greater (Experiment 2) masking release compared to younger adults. Reduced masking release previously observed in older adults does not appear to generalize to sounds with an engaging, connected narrative: this reinforces the idea that the listening materials qualitatively change listening behavior and that standard intelligibility paradigms may underestimate speech-listening abilities in older adults.

2021 ◽  
pp. 016502542110390
Alison M. O’Connor ◽  
Rebecca A. Judges ◽  
Kang Lee ◽  
Angela D. Evans

Self-report research indicates that dishonesty decreases across adulthood; however, behavioral measures of dishonesty have yet to be examined across younger and older adults. The present study examined younger and older adults’ cheating behaviors in relation to their self-reported honesty–humility. Younger ( N = 112) and older adults ( N = 85) completed a matrix task where they had the opportunity to falsely inflate their performance. Participants also completed the self-report measure of honesty–humility from the HEXACO-PI-R. Older adults were significantly less likely to cheat and had higher ratings of honesty–humility compared to younger adults. Greater honesty–humility predicted lower cheating behavior. These results demonstrate that older adults show greater rates of honesty and humility compared to younger adults using both behavioral and self-report methods.

2021 ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Cai Xing ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Helene H. FUNG ◽  
Miao-miao Yang

Emotions change people’s time perception, which has been evidenced in children and younger adults. However, older adults, who cognitively process positive stimuli to a greater extent than negative and neutral stimuli (Carstensen &amp; Mikels, 2005), had been neglected in most empirical studies examining the role of emotion played in time perception. Using a temporal bisection task, the present study investigated age differences (Nolder =21, Nyounger=21) in time perception of negative (sad and angry), positive (happy), and neutral facial expressions. A significant age by emotion interaction in time perception was found in results, such that older adults perceived the presentation durations of happy faces longer than negative ones, whereas the opposite pattern was observed in younger adults. The present findings could be interpreted by the internal clock model and the “positivity effect” in older adults’ cognitive and affective processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1188
Anastasia Dressler ◽  
Valetina Perelli ◽  
Margherita Bozza ◽  
Stefania Bargagna ◽  
Franz Benninger ◽  

Background: In Down syndrome (DS), adaptive behaviour often shows a “surplus effect” (i.e., higher adaptive abilities than expected from cognitive skills). As inclusive schooling has become mandatory in Italy, we studied the impact of school inclusion on the surplus effect of adaptive behaviour in adult DS, considering potential confounding factors such as parental education. Methods: All consecutive DS individuals from three different sites were queried prospectively regarding type of schooling (inclusive and non-inclusive). Demographic data were documented; cognitive abilities and adaptive behaviour were assessed (Coloured Progressive Matrices and Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales). The aim was to establish the presence of a surplus effect in adaptive behaviour, primarily in the overall level and secondarily in the main domains and subdomains. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model was used for the association of schooling, and parental education. Results: The majority (65%) showed a surplus effect in adaptive behaviour and had attended inclusive schools (85%). Higher adaptive skills as well as early and longer functional treatment programmes were more readily available for younger individuals. In the group of inclusive schooling, the surplus effect on overall adaptive behaviour was present in 70% as opposed to 38% in the group without inclusive schooling, significant when adjusted for gender and maternal education. This was also observed in socialisation, written, and community, and after adjustment in playing and leisure time. Conclusions: Adaptive behaviour showed a surplus effect in the majority of DS adults, even more so after inclusive schooling. Younger adults showed higher adaptive skills. Moreover, female gender and higher maternal educational level significantly enhanced this surplus effect.

2021 ◽  
Matthew Carroll ◽  
Timothy Colin Heath Campbell ◽  
Catherine L Smith ◽  
Caroline Xiaolei Gao ◽  
Darryl Maybery ◽  

Due to climate change, catastrophic events such as landscape fires are increasing in frequency and severity. However, relatively little is known about the longer-term mental health outcomes of such events. Follow-up was conducted of 709 adults exposed to smoke from the 2014 Hazelwood mine fire in Morwell, Victoria, Australia. Participants completed two surveys evaluating posttraumatic distress, measured using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), three and six years after the mine fire. Mixed-effects regression models were used to evaluate longitudinal changes in distress. IES-R total scores increased on average by 2.6 points (95%CI: 1.2 to 3.9 points) between the two survey rounds, with increases across all three posttraumatic distress symptom clusters, particularly intrusive symptoms. This increase in distress was evident across all levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure to the mine fire smoke. Age was an effect modifier between mine fire PM2.5 exposure and posttraumatic distress, with younger adults impacted more by exposure to the mine fire. Greater exposure to PM2.5 from the mine fire was still associated with increased psychological distress some six years later, with the overall level of distress increasing between the two survey rounds. The follow-up survey coincided with the Black Summer bushfire season in south-eastern Australia and exposure to this new smoke event may have triggered distress sensitivities stemming from exposure to the earlier mine fire. Public health responses to disaster events should take into consideration prior exposures and vulnerable groups, particularly younger adults.

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