Venous Thrombosis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Adriana Fernandes de Souza Garcia ◽  
Gesiane Ribeiro ◽  
Julia de Assis Arantes ◽  
Gustavo Morandini Reginato ◽  
Nathalia Villaca Xavier ◽  

Abstract Background For horses requiring prolonged daily cephalic intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP), the use of a totally implantable catheter (TIC) could be indicated to reduce complications associated with frequent venipuncture or external catheterization. This study aims to evaluate the implantation technique of the TIC in the cephalic vein of horses for IVRLP, describe the complications associated with the device’s placement and use, and assess its viability up to 60 days after implantation. Totally implantable catheters, cut to 15 cm (n = 5) and 46 cm (n = 5) in length, were implanted into one cephalic vein in ten adult horses (n = 10). Twenty-four hours following placement, IVRLP with contrast was performed via the TIC and evaluated with radiography. Physical examinations, lameness evaluation, hematologic assessment, and the catheter patency tests were performed at scheduled intervals for the duration of catheterization (7–60 days). Results Catheters were implanted without difficulty and allowed for IVRLP 24 h post implantation. Complications resulted in removal of the catheters, with four maintained for 7 days, three in place for 15 days, and three catheters maintained for 60 days. Complications included lameness, limb swelling, catheter kinking, and venous thrombosis. Conclusions The implantation technique of the TIC in the cephalic vein of horses is feasible and requires minimal technical effort. Although TIC allows venous access without the need for repeated venipuncture, its long-term use presents complications. For horses requiring prolonged daily cephalic IVRLP, the use of a TIC could be indicated. However, the high incidence of venous thrombosis may limit clinical application.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Yanyan Ding ◽  
Yuzhe Li ◽  
Zhiqian Zhao ◽  
Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang ◽  
Feng Liu

Although thrombosis has been extensively studied using various animal models, our understanding of the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, using zebrafish model, we demonstrated that smarca5-deficient red blood cells (RBCs) formed blood clots in the caudal vein plexus. We further used the anti-thrombosis drugs to treat smarca5zko1049a embryos and found that a thrombin inhibitor, argatroban, partially prevented blood clot formation in smarca5zko1049a. To explore the regulatory mechanism of smarca5 in RBC homeostasis, we profiled the chromatin accessibility landscape and transcriptome features in RBCs from smarca5zko1049a and their siblings and found that both the chromatin accessibility at the keap1a promoter and expression of keap1a were decreased. Keap1 is a suppressor protein of Nrf2, which is a major regulator of oxidative responses. We further identified that the expression of hmox1a, a downstream target of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway, was markedly increased upon smarca5 deletion. Importantly, overexpression of keap1a or knockdown of hmox1a partially rescued the blood clot formation, suggesting that the disrupted Keap1-Nrf2 signaling is responsible for the RBC aggregation in smarca5 mutants. Together, our study using zebrafish smarca5 mutants characterizes a novel role for smarca5 in RBC aggregation, which may provide a new venous thrombosis animal model to support drug screening and pre-clinical therapeutic assessments to treat thrombosis.

Mudit Mittal ◽  
Rakesh Srivastava

<p><strong>Background:</strong> The so called “black fungus epidemic” struck India during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Large numbers of patients were being reported, posing a challenging situation for clinicians. The treatment options were limited, and rescue surgery was mutilating, anti-fungal medicines became short of supply soon, prognosis remained poor. Objective was to understand a unifying pathophysiological picture with a framework to check this post Covid epidemic, especially in context with South-east-Asia. </p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: The clinical, radiological, surgical data of patients presented with symptoms of rhino-orbito-cerebral complications, collected and analyzed.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: 80.9% of operated patient had thrombosis of identifiable major vessels. The 76.7% patient had cerebral venous thrombosis. The 30% patient had internal carotid artery narrowing on imaging. Fungal staining was positive in 72% patient. We found level of D dimer was high in 81.3% patients and 83.9% patients had blood sugar level raised at the time of presentation.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Hyper thrombotic state of COVID-19 in diabetes and injudicious use of steroids predisposed susceptible patients to thromboembolic phenomena, leading to necrosis of tissue and secondary fungal infection.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4925
Antonella Tufano ◽  
Domenico Rendina ◽  
Veronica Abate ◽  
Aniello Casoria ◽  
Annachiara Marra ◽  

Background: A high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is reported in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, in particular in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In patients with respiratory tract infections, including influenza A (H1N1), many studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of thromboses, but evidence is lacking regarding the risk difference (RD) of the occurrence of VTE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we evaluated the RD of the occurrence of VTE, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) between COVID-19 and other pulmonary infection cohorts, in particular H1N1, and in an ICU setting. We searched for all studies comparing COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19 regarding VTE, PE, and DVT. Results: The systematic review included 12 studies and 1,013,495 patients. The RD for VTE in COVID-19 compared to non-COVID-19 patients was 0.06 (95% CI 0.11–0.25, p = 0.011, I2 = 97%), and 0.16 in ICU (95% CI 0.045–0.27, p = 0.006, I2 = 80%). The RD for PE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.006–0.045, p = 0.01, I2 = 89%). The RD for PE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was 0.021 in retrospective studies (95% CI 0.00–0.04, p = 0.048, I2 = 92%) and 0.11 in ICU studies (95% CI 0.06–0.16, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%). Conclusions: The growing awareness and understanding of a massive inflammatory response combined with a hypercoagulable state that predisposes patients to thrombosis in COVID-19, in particular in the ICU, may contribute to a more appropriate strategy of prevention and earlier detection of the thrombotic events.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (41) ◽  
pp. 47-49
Jasmin Rahesh ◽  
Layan Al-Sukhni ◽  
Baseer Quraishi ◽  
Tarek Naguib

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare but life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Characteristic features involve thyrotoxicosis, acute paralysis, and hypokalemia. Mild hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia are also present in most cases due to the resulting transcellular shift of electrolytes. Complications of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis reported in the literature have included cerebral venous thrombosis as well as lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. We present a patient with an unusual presentation of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as reflected by hyperphosphatemia, upper extremity deep venous thrombosis and severe hypomagnesemia. This is the first reported case of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in association with a peripherally inserted central catheter line secondary to thyrotoxicosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 ◽  
pp. 101860
Ramzi Mejri ◽  
Khaireddine Mrad Dali ◽  
Kays Chaker ◽  
Mokhtar Bibi ◽  
Sami Ben Rhouma ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 442-444
Vijay Gandhi ◽  
Sonia Agrawal ◽  
Sheetal Yadav

Systemic pulse corticosteroid therapy is used widely in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Dural venous sinus thrombosis as a complication of pulse therapy has not been reported in the literature. A middle-aged female with pemphigus vulgaris was started on monthly pulse dexamethasone therapy with daily azathioprine as an adjuvant. After two pulse therapies, she developed throbbing headache, which on further evaluation was determined to be due to dural venous thrombosis. Other causes of dural venous thrombosis were excluded. Pulse therapy was stopped and other medications were started. The headache subsided within two weeks of stopping pulse therapy. Corticosteroids may play the role of a procoagulant in producing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Herein, we report a rare case of dural venous sinus thrombosis due to pulse steroid therapy in pemphigus vulgaris.

2021 ◽  
Andrew Ward ◽  
Ashish Sarraju ◽  
Donghyun Lee ◽  
Kanchan Bhasin ◽  
Sanchit Gad ◽  

Introduction Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is typically compared with influenza to contextualize its health risks. SARS-CoV-2 has been linked with coagulation disturbances including arterial thrombosis, leading to considerable interest in antithrombotic therapy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the independent thromboembolic risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with influenza remains incompletely understood. We evaluated the adjusted risks of thromboembolic events after a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared with influenza in a large retrospective cohort. Methods We used a US-based electronic health record (EHR) dataset linked with insurance claims to identify adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and October 31, 2020. We identified influenza patients diagnosed between October 1, 2018 and April 31, 2019. Primary outcomes [venous composite of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT); arterial composite of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)] and secondary outcomes were assessed 90 days post-diagnosis. Propensity scores (PS) were calculated using demographic, clinical, and medication variables. PS-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results There were 417,975 COVID-19 patients (median age 57y, 61% women), and 345,934 influenza patients (median age 47y, 66% women). Compared with influenza, patients with COVID-19 had higher venous thromboembolic risk (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.38-1.70), but not arterial thromboembolic risk (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.10). Secondary analyses demonstrated similar risk for ischemic stroke (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.25) and MI (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.03) and higher risk for DVT (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.56) and PE (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.57-2.10) in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion In a large retrospective US cohort, COVID-19 was independently associated with higher 90-day risk for venous thrombosis, but not arterial thrombosis, as compared with influenza. These findings may inform crucial knowledge gaps regarding the specific thromboembolic risks of COVID-19.

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