modern chemical
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Marcus J.C. Long ◽  
Yimon Aye

The Covid‐19 pandemic, evolving needs of students & mentors, and the drive for global educational equality are collectively shifting how courses are packaged/distributed, ushering a more holistic approach and blending of fields. We recently created interdisciplinary courses in chemical biology aimed at massive open online and small private levels. These courses cover biology, chemistry, & physics, and concepts underlying modern chemical‐biology tools. We discuss what we learned while creating/overseeing these courses: content optimization and maintaining material freshness while fostering a stimulating learning environment. We outline mechanisms that help sustain student attention throughout rapidly‐moving courses, how to integrate adaptability to students’ needs in the short & long term, and speculate how we could have improved. We believe this will be an important guide for anyone wanting to develop online learning formats ideal for nurturing interdisciplinary scientists of tomorrow.

2022 ◽  
Mingjian Wen ◽  
Samuel M. Blau ◽  
Xiaowei Xie ◽  
Shyam Dwaraknath ◽  
Kristin Persson

Machine learning (ML) methods have great potential to transform chemical discovery by accelerating the exploration of chemical space and drawing scientific insights from data. However, modern chemical reaction ML models,...

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4(76)) ◽  
pp. 20-32
Vasyl M. Britsun ◽  
Nataliya V. Simurova ◽  
Inna V. Popova ◽  
Oleksii V. Simurov

Aim. To generalize and systematize information on the properties of modern chemical disinfectants and antiseptic agents (DA and AA) – peroxide compounds, surfactants, salts of heavy metals and metals of variable valence in the highest oxidation state, alcohols, phenols and quaternary ammonium salts.Results and discussion. The classification of DA and AA by the chemical structure was performed. The spectrum of their activity, directions and forms of DA and AA were given. Toxicity and the impact on the environment were described.Conclusions. The results of the study conducted allow us to state that modern DA and AA of a wide spectrum of action are peracetic acid and, to a certain extent, hydrogen peroxide. However, they are unstable in dilute solutions. Other reagents are chemically stable, but they are characterized by a weak or average action against spores and viruses. The most effective DA and AA are mixtures (combinations) of compounds belonging to different classes. The examples of these combinations are “surfactants + biguanidine derivatives”; “quaternary ammonium salts + phenol derivatives”; “surfactants + aldehydes”; “quaternary ammonium salts + hydrogen peroxide”. These mixtures combine the advantages and compensate for the disadvantages of individual DA and AA.

Phytomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 153889
Lanlan Ge ◽  
Qiujie Xie ◽  
Yuanyuan Jiang ◽  
Lingyun Xiao ◽  
Haoqiang Wan ◽  

Tahir Raza ◽  
Lijun Qu ◽  
Waquar Ahmed Khokhar ◽  
Boakye Andrews ◽  
Afzal Ali ◽  

Conductive nanomaterials have recently gained a lot of interest due to their excellent physical, chemical, and electrical properties, as well as their numerous nanoscale morphologies, which enable them to be fabricated into a wide range of modern chemical and biological sensors. This study focuses mainly on current applications based on conductive nanostructured materials. They are the key elements in preparing wearable electrochemical Biosensors, including electrochemical immunosensors and DNA biosensors. Conductive nanomaterials such as carbon (Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene), metals and conductive polymers, which provide a large effective surface area, fast electron transfer rate and high electrical conductivity, are summarized in detail. Conductive polymer nanocomposites in combination with carbon and metal nanoparticles have also been addressed to increase sensor performance. In conclusion, a section on current challenges and opportunities in this growing field is forecasted at the end.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3(75)) ◽  
pp. 3-14
Vasyl M. Britsun ◽  
Nataliya V. Simurova ◽  
Inna V. Popova ◽  
Oleksii V. Simurov

Aim. To generalize and systematize information on the properties of modern chemical disinfectants and antiseptic agents (DA and AA).Results and discussion. The review provides generalized and systematized information on the properties of modern chemical DA and AA – alkylating reagents, aldehydes, amides, amidines, bisguanidines, dyes, halogenated reagents, halogens and their complexes, 2-nitrofuran derivatives. The classification of DA and AA by their chemical structure was carried out. The activity spectra, possible application ways and forms of DA and AA were given. Their toxicity and impact on the environment were described as well.Conclusions. On the basis of the analysis carried out it was shown that aldehydes, halogen-active compounds and halogen-containing complexes are modern effective DA and AA with a wide spectrum of biocidal action. Amides, amidines and bisguanidines are characterized by a narrow spectrum of activity. Dyes and 2-nitrofuran derivatives are old-fashioned antiseptics.

2021 ◽  
Jacob O. Rothbaum ◽  
Alessandro Motta ◽  
Yosi Kratish ◽  
Tobin Marks

C-H activation and functionalization of pyridinoid azines is a key transformation forthe synthesis of many natural products, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Reflecting the azinyl nitrogen lone-pair steric repulsion, tendency to irreversibly bind to metal ion catalysts, and the electron-deficient nature of pyridine, C-H functionalization at the important a-position remains challenging. Thus, the development of earth abundant catalysts for the a-selective mono-functionalization of azines is a crucial hurdle for modern chemical synthesis. Here, the selective organolanthanide catalyzed a-mono-borylation of a diverse series of pyridines is reported, affording a valuable precursor for cross-coupling reactions. Experimental and theoretical mechanistic evidence support the formation of a C-H activated η2-lanthanide-azine complex, followed by intermolecular a-mono-borylation via σ-bond metathesis. Notably, varying the lanthanide identity and substrate electronics promotes chemodivergence of the catalytic selectivity: smaller/more electrophilic lanthanide3+ ions and electron-rich substrates favor selective a-C-H functionalization, whereas larger/less electrophilic lanthanide3+ 1 ions and electron poor substrates favor selective B-N bond-forming 1,2-dearomatization. Such organolanthanide series catalytic chemodivergence is, to our knowledge, unprecedented.

Shoheb S Shaikh ◽  
Nachiket S Dighe

Traditional medicine and medicinal plants, as well as their study of modern chemical principles, may lead to the development of newer, less expensive medications. Ginkgo Biloba is well-known for curing a variety of ailments and is utilized in a variety of traditional medicinal formulations. Scientists and researchers from all over the world have spent decades studying the chemical composition of the entire Ginkgo Biloba plant, as well as its biological and pharmacological functions. These investigations established Ginkgo Biloba's medicinal potential in modern medicine and as a prospective drug discovery candidate. The current paper provides an overview of Ginkgo Bilobaethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-226
T. S. Demina ◽  
T. A. Akopova ◽  
A. N. Zelenetsky

Abstract The transition to green chemistry and biodegradable polymers is a logical stage in the development of modern chemical science and technology. In the framework of this review, the advantages, disadvantages, and potential of biodegradable polymers of synthetic and natural origin are compared using the example of polylactide and chitosan as traditional representatives of these classes of polymers, and the possibilities of their combination via obtaining composite materials or copolymers are assessed. The mechanochemical approach to the synthesis of graft copolymers of chitosan with oligolactides/polylactides is considered in more detail.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1524
Sutasinee Apichai ◽  
Chalermpong Saenjum ◽  
Thanawat Pattananandecha ◽  
Kitti Phojuang ◽  
Siraprapa Wattanakul ◽  

A modern chemical sensor system (M-CSS) was developed for the cost-effective chemical analysis of Thai precision and sustainable agriculture (TPSA), which is suitable in rural Thailand and elsewhere. The aim of this study was to achieve precision and sustainable agriculture (P-SA). The M-CSS functions according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) definition and incorporates information and communication technologies (ICTs). The developed chemical sensor in the M-CSS is based on a colorimetric determination by a smart device/smartphone. Additionally, the preparation of soil samples was investigated. Soil samples of optimal conditions were extracted using an acid extractant in the ratio of one to two (extract to soil sample). Then, phosphate-phosphorous and potassium were detected with the M-CSS, which showed an excellent correlation with the standard reference methods. Interestingly, it is noteworthy that the at-site analysis of the developed method could detect a greater nitrate-nitrogen content than that of the standard reference method. The developed cost-effective analysis for the plant macronutrient content in the soil, including nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorous, and potassium, was demonstrated for organic vegetable farms at the real P-SA research site in Northern Thailand. The obtained results can guide the management of the application of fertilizers. The proposed M-CSS exhibited the potential to be used for at-site soil macronutrient analysis and represents the starting point of Thai precision and sustainable agriculture (TPSA).

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