Environmental Conditions
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2021 ◽  
Poornapushpakala S ◽  
M. Subramoniam ◽  
Vijayashree T

Abstract India has its unique and rich cultural heritage. One such uniqueness in India is ancient paintings. Especially in South India, Tanjore paintings are very popular. These paintings are made with vibrant colours, gold, silver and precious stones. These paintings are the memorabilia of the great Chola kingdom. These paintings can be seen in great Brahadeeshwara Temple walls till now. Damages to these paintings happen due to varying environmental conditions throughout the year. Hence, preserving these heritages could be an additional source in National Cultural Museum and cultural libraries. This paper focuses towards the restoration of such ancient painting images that can be digitized and archived for the future use of aesthete.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 8943
Rudy Alexis Guejia Guejia Burbano ◽  
Giovanni Petrone ◽  
Patrizio Manganiello

In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used for isolating faults and degradation phenomena occurring in photovoltaic (PV) panels. In the literature, it is well known that the values of the single diode model (SDM) associated to the PV source are strictly related to degradation phenomena and their variation is an indicator of panel degradation. On the other hand, the values of parameters that allow to identify the degraded conditions are not known a priori because they can be different from panel to panel and are strongly dependent on environmental conditions, PV technology and the manufacturing process. For these reasons, to correctly detect the presence of degradation, the effect of environmental conditions and fabrication processes must be properly filtered out. The approach proposed in this paper exploits the intrinsic capability of ANN to map in its architecture two effects: (1) the non-linear relations existing among the SDM parameters and the environmental conditions, and (2) the effect of the degradation phenomena on the I−V curves and, consequently, on the SDM parameters. The ANN architecture is composed of two stages that are trained separately: one for predicting the SDM parameters under the hypothesis of healthy operation and the other one for degraded condition. The variation of each parameter, calculated as the difference of the output of the two ANN stages, will give a direct identification of the type of degradation that is occurring on the PV panel. The method was initially tested by using the experimental I−V curves provided by the NREL database, where the degradation was introduced artificially, later tested by using some degraded experimental I−V curves.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2267
Anna Łepecka ◽  
Piotr Szymański ◽  
Sylwia Rutkowska ◽  
Kinga Iwanowska ◽  
Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental conditions on the antimicrobial properties of 21 lactic acid bacteria strains in the selected indicator bacteria. To assess the antimicrobial activity of the whole bacteria culture (WBC), the agar well diffusion method was used. The interference of LAB strains with the growth of the selected indicator bacteria was evaluated by incubating co-cultures in the food matrix. Based on the conducted research, it was found that environmental conditions have a significant impact on the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria strains. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded under optimal conditions for the development of LAB, the incubation time being different depending on the indicator strain used. The tested LAB strains were characterized by a high ability to inhibit indicator strains, especially in the food matrix. These results led us to further characterize and purify the antimicrobial compound produced by lactic acid bacteria taking into account changing environmental conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Rachel A. Fichman ◽  
Adi Khen ◽  
Malte Willmes ◽  
Jonathon Kuntz ◽  
Alexander R. Scott ◽  

Estuaries are places where fresh water from rivers mixes with salty water from the ocean. Why does this matter? This mixing creates dynamic, ever-changing conditions that fishes must navigate in order to survive. Environmental conditions can change yearly, seasonally, daily, and even hourly. Fishes use many different strategies to adjust to this wild variation. Some are picky and only use certain habitats. Others use many different kinds of habitats and move between them at different times of the year. Adults and juveniles might even live away from each other in different parts of the estuary. In this article, we describe some of the clever strategies that fishes use to survive in estuaries. We also consider how scientists uncover these clever strategies and what each of us can do to help protect the fishes of the San Francisco Estuary and elsewhere.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yoshitomo Kurogi ◽  
Yosuke Mizuno ◽  
Eisuke Imura ◽  
Ryusuke Niwa

Animals can adjust their physiology, helping them survive and reproduce under a wide range of environmental conditions. One of the strategies to endure unfavorable environmental conditions such as low temperature and limited food supplies is dormancy. In some insect species, this may manifest as reproductive dormancy, which causes their reproductive organs to be severely depleted under conditions unsuitable for reproduction. Reproductive dormancy in insects is induced by a reduction in juvenile hormones synthesized in the corpus allatum (pl. corpora allata; CA) in response to winter-specific environmental cues, such as low temperatures and short-day length. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the study of dormancy-inducing conditions dependent on CA control mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. This review summarizes dormancy control mechanisms in D. melanogaster and discusses the implications for future studies of insect dormancy, particularly focusing on juvenile hormone-dependent regulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Madhav Erraguntla ◽  
Darpit Dave ◽  
Josef Zapletal ◽  
Kevin Myles ◽  
Zach N. Adelman ◽  

AbstractMosquitoes transmit several infectious diseases that pose significant threat to human health. Temperature along with other environmental factors at breeding and resting locations play a role in the organismal development and abundance of mosquitoes. Accurate analysis of mosquito population dynamics requires information on microclimatic conditions at breeding and resting locations. In this study, we develop a regression model to characterize microclimatic temperature based on ambient environmental conditions. Data were collected by placing sensor loggers at resting and breeding locations such as storm drains across Houston, TX. Corresponding weather data was obtained from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website. Features extracted from these data sources along with contextual information on location were used to develop a Generalized Linear Model for predicting microclimate temperatures. We also analyzed mosquito population dynamics for Aedes albopictus under ambient and microclimatic conditions using system dynamic (SD) modelling to demonstrate the need for accurate microclimatic temperatures in population models. The microclimate prediction model had an R2 value of ~ 95% and average prediction error of ~ 1.5 °C indicating that microclimate temperatures can be reliably estimated from the ambient environmental conditions. SD model analysis indicates that some microclimates in Texas could result in larger populations of juvenile and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes surviving the winter without requiring dormancy.

2021 ◽  
Hao Zeng ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Kai Zhang

Abstract The granite and limestone powders are commonly exploited as a replacement for cement; however, the effects of different mixing dosages of them on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete have not been scrutinized carefully. Under different environmental conditions, the compressive strength of the specimens is measured using cube compressive, splitting tensile, freeze-thaw cycles, and sulfate immersion tests. The phase composition of hydration products and microstructure is evaluated by SEM scanning analysis. The results indicate that the composite mixture of granite and limestone powders shows a complementary synergistic effect and improves the mechanical properties, freeze-thaw resistance, and sulfate erosion resistance of the concrete. The best values for the mechanical properties and freeze-thaw resistance are obtained when the dosages of granite and limestone powders in order are 10% and 5%. For the case of granite and limestone powders equal to 10% and 15%, respectively, the best sulfate erosion resistance is reported.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1033
Katerina V. Sazanova ◽  
Marina S. Zelenskaya ◽  
Oksana A. Rodina ◽  
Alexey L. Shavarda ◽  
Dmitry Yu. Vlasov

The formation of biolayers of various taxonomic and biochemical composition occurs on the rock surfaces under various environmental conditions. The composition of metabolites in various types of biolayers on the marble surface in natural outcrops and urban environment was studied. Metabolome profiling was fulfilled by GC-MS. It was found that communities in urban environment are much less biochemically diverse than in a quarry. The seasonal differences in metabolite network between samples dominate over taxonomic ones in biolayers with predomination of algae and cyanobacteria and in biolayers with predomination of fungi. The biolayers of different stage of soil formation are less susceptible to seasonal variability.

2021 ◽  
M.Sc. Ashraf Emran ◽  
Shivam Garg ◽  
M.Sc. Patrick Manns ◽  
Vijay Sharma

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