pattern search
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2022 ◽  
Bruce R Hopenfeld

Background: Obtaining reliable rate heart estimates from waist based electrocardiograms (ECGs) poses a very challenging problem due to the presence of extreme motion artifacts. The literature reveals few, if any, attempts to apply motion artifact cancellation methods to waist based ECGs. This paper describes a new methodology for ameliorating the effects of motion artifacts in ECGs by specifically targeting ECG peaks for elimination that are determined to be correlated with accelerometer peaks. This peak space cancellation was applied to real world waist based ECGs. Algorithm Summary: The methodology includes successive applications of a previously described pattern-based heart beat detection scheme (Temporal Pattern Search, or TEPS) that can also detect patterns in other types of peak sequences. In the first application, TEPS is applied to accelerometer signals recorded contemporaneously with ECG signals to identify high-quality accelerometer peak sequences (SA) indicative of quasi-periodic motion likely to impair identification of peaks in a corresponding ECG signal. The process then performs ECG peak detection and locates the closest in time ECG peak to each peak in an SA. The differences in time between ECG and SA peaks are clustered. If the number of elements in a cluster of peaks in an SA exceeds a threshold, the ECG peaks in that cluster are removed from further processing. After this peak removal process, further QRS detection proceeds according to TEPS. Experiment: The above procedure was applied to data from real world experiments involving four sessions of walking and jogging on a dirt road for approximately 20-25 minutes. A compression shirt with textile electrodes served as the ground truth recording. A textile electrode based chest strap was worn around the waist to generate a single channel signal upon which to test peak space cancellation/TEPS. Results: Both walking and jogging heart rates were generally well tracked. In the four recordings, the percentage of 5 second segments within 10 beats/minute of reference was 96%, 99%, 92% and 96%. The percentage of segments within 5 beats/minute of reference was 86%, 90%, 82% and 78%. There was very good agreement between the RR intervals associated with the reference and waist recordings. For acceptable quality segments, the root mean square sum of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD) was calculated for both the reference and waist recordings. Next, the difference between waist and reference RMSSDs was calculated (∆RMSSD). The mean ∆RMSSD (over acceptable segments) was 4.6 m, 5.2 ms, 5.2 ms and 6.6 ms for the four recordings. Conclusion: Given that only one waist ECG channel was available, and that the strap used for the waist recording was not tailored for that purpose, the proposed methodology shows promise for waist based sinus rhythm QRS detection.

Krzysztof Wiktorowicz ◽  
Tomasz Krzeszowski

AbstractSimplifying fuzzy models, including those for predicting time series, is an important issue in terms of their interpretation and implementation. This simplification can involve both the number of inference rules (i.e., structure) and the number of parameters. This paper proposes novel hybrid methods for time series prediction that utilize Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with reduced structure. The fuzzy sets are obtained using a global optimization algorithm (particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, or pattern search). The polynomials are determined by elastic net regression, which is a sparse regression. The simplification is based on reducing the number of polynomial parameters in the then-part by using sparse regression and removing unnecessary rules by using labels. A new quality criterion is proposed to express a compromise between the model accuracy and its simplification. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can improve a fuzzy model while simplifying its structure.

Mohammad Khajehzadeh ◽  
Suraparb Keawsawasvong ◽  
Payam Sarir ◽  
Dlshad Khurshid Khailany

One of the most important topics in geotechnical engineering is seismic analysis of the earth slope. In this study, a pseudo-static limit equilibrium approach is applied for the slope stability evaluation under earthquake loading based on the Morgenstern–Price method for the general shape of the slip surface. In this approach, the minimum factor of safety corresponding to the critical failure surface should be investigated and it is a complex optimization problem. This paper proposed an effective sequential hybrid optimization algorithm based on the tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) and pattern search (PS) for seismic slope stability analysis. The proposed method employs the global search ability of TSA and the local search ability of PS. The performance of the new CTSA-PS algorithm is investigated using a set of benchmark test functions and the results are compared with the standard TSA and some other methods from the literature. In addition, two case studies from the literature are considered to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed CTSA-PS for seismic slope stability analysis. The numerical investigations show that the new approach may provide better optimal solutions and outperform previous methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 541
Mahdiyeh Eslami ◽  
Mehdi Neshat ◽  
Saifulnizam Abd. Khalid

This paper presents an effective hybrid optimization technique based on a chaotic sine cosine algorithm (CSCA) and pattern search (PS) for the coordinated design of power system stabilizers (PSSs) and static VAR compensator (SVC)-based controllers. For this purpose, the design problem is considered as an optimization problem whose decision variables are the controllers’ parameters. Due to the nonlinearities of large, interconnected power systems, methods capable of handling any nonlinearity of power networks are preferable. In this regard, a nonlinear time domain-based objective function was used. Then, the proposed hybrid chaotic sine cosine pattern search (hCSC-PS) algorithm was employed for solving this optimization problem. The proposed method employed the global search ability of SCA and the local search ability of PS. The performance of the new hCSC-PS was investigated using a set of benchmark functions, and then the results were compared with those of the standard SCA and some other methods from the literature. In addition, a case study from the literature is considered to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed hCSC-PS for the coordinated design of controllers in the power system. PSSs and additional SVC controllers are being considered to demonstrate the feasibility of the new technique. In order to ensure the robustness and performance of the proposed controller, the objective function is evaluated for various extreme loading conditions and system configurations. The numerical investigations show that the new approach may provide better optimal damping and outperforms previous methods. Nonlinear time-domain simulation shows the superiority of the proposed controller and its ability in providing efficient damping of electromechanical oscillations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
Ferrante Neri

AbstractFitness landscape analysis for optimisation is a technique that involves analysing black-box optimisation problems to extract pieces of information about the problem, which can beneficially inform the design of the optimiser. Thus, the design of the algorithm aims to address the specific features detected during the analysis of the problem. Similarly, the designer aims to understand the behaviour of the algorithm, even though the problem is unknown and the optimisation is performed via a metaheuristic method. Thus, the algorithmic design made using fitness landscape analysis can be seen as an example of explainable AI in the optimisation domain. The present paper proposes a framework that performs fitness landscape analysis and designs a Pattern Search (PS) algorithm on the basis of the results of the analysis. The algorithm is implemented in a restarting fashion: at each restart, the fitness landscape analysis refines the analysis of the problem and updates the pattern matrix used by PS. A computationally efficient implementation is also presented in this study. Numerical results show that the proposed framework clearly outperforms standard PS and another PS implementation based on fitness landscape analysis. Furthermore, the two instances of the proposed framework considered in this study are competitive with popular algorithms present in the literature.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2283
Jairo Palacio-Morales ◽  
Andrés Tobón ◽  
Jorge Herrera

In this paper, an approach for the tuning of a model-based non-linear predictive control (NMPC) is presented. The proposed control uses the pattern search optimization algorithm (PSM), which is applied to the pH non-linear control in the alkalinization process of sugar juice. First, the model identification is made using the Takagi Sugeno T-S fuzzy inference systems with multidimensional fuzzy sets; the next step is the controller parameters tuning. The PSM algorithm is used in both cases. The proposed approach allows the minimization of model uncertainty and decreases, in the response, the error in a steady state when compared with other authors who perform the same procedure but apply other optimization algorithms. The results show an improvement in the steady-state error in the plant response.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 2964
Alamgir Safi ◽  
Muhammad Asghar Khan ◽  
Muhammad Adnan Aziz ◽  
Mohammed H. Alsharif ◽  
Tanweer Ahmad Cheema ◽  

This article deals with the application of differential geometry to the array manifolds of non-uniform linear antenna array (NULA) when estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of multiple sources present in an environment using far field approximation. In order to resolve this issue, we utilized a doublet linear antenna array (DLA) comprising two individual NULAs, along with a proposed algorithm that chooses correct directions of the impinging sources with the help of the prior knowledge of the ambiguous directions calculated with the application of differential geometry to the manifold curves of each NULA. The algorithm checks the correlation of the estimated direction of arrival (DOAs) by both the individual NULA with its corresponding ambiguous set of directions and chooses the output of the NULA, which has a minimum correlation between their estimated DOAs and corresponding ambiguous DOAs. DLA is designed such that the intersection of all the ambiguous set of DOAs among the individual NULAs are null sets. DOA of sources, which imping signals from different directions on the DLA, are estimated using three direction finding (DF) techniques, such as, genetic algorithm (GA), pattern search (PS), and a hybrid technique that utilizes both GA and PS at the same time. As compared to the existing techniques of ambiguity resolution, the proposed algorithm improves the estimation accuracy. Simulation results for all the three DF techniques utilizing the DLA along with the proposed algorithm are presented using MATLAB. As compared to the genetic algorithm and pattern search, the intelligent hybrid technique, such that, GA–PS, had better estimation accuracy in choosing corrected DOAs, despite the fact that the impinging DOAs were from ambiguous directions.

2021 ◽  
Colin L Hisey ◽  
AJ Tyler ◽  
Arvin Lim ◽  
Lawrence W Chamley ◽  
Cherie Blenkiron ◽  

Microfluidic liquid biopsies using affinity-based capture of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have demonstrated great potential for providing rapid disease diagnosis and monitoring. However, little effort has been devoted to optimising the geometry of the microfluidic channels for maximum EV capture due to the inherent challenges of physically testing many geometric designs. To address this, we developed an automated parallel pattern search (PPS) optimiser by combining a Python optimiser, COMSOL Multiphysics, and high performance computing. This unique approach was applied to a triangular micropillar array geometry by parameterising repeating unit cells, making several assumptions, and optimising for maximum particle capture efficiency. We successfully optimised the triangular pillar arrays and surprisingly found that simply maximising the total number of pillars and effective surface area did not result in maximum EV capture, as devices with slightly larger pillars and more spacing between pillars allowed contact with slower moving EVs that followed the pillar contours more closely. We then experimentally validated this finding using bioreactor-produced EVs in the best and worst channel designs that were functionalised with an antibody against CD63. Captured EVs were quantified using a fluorescent plate reader, followed by an established elution method and nanoparticle tracking analysis. These results demonstrate the power of automated microfluidic geometry optimisations for EV liquid biopsies and will support further development of this rapidly growing field.

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