scholarly journals Identification of terrestrial gastropods families found in district Swat, Pakistan

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Rafiq ◽  
S. Z. Ahmad ◽  
G. Yasmeen ◽  
A. Baset ◽  
M. A. Iqbal ◽  

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.

2011 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-30
Vita Vita

A variety of plant species that exist today reflect the diversity of plant species as well as how pre-existing or in the past, the area along the environmental conditions are not much changed significantly. Plant communities in a region will illustrate the diversity of plant species tolerant to environmental conditions in the area. The power plant tolerance to different environmental factors will lead to different types of plants that live in the area By using HF method and Acetolysis, then the results of the identification of fossil pollen (pollen analysis) that has been done specifically on a sample of soil /sediment from the findings of pottery, as well as the box has been opened at the excavation site Pemuteran, Buleleng Regency, Bali Province randomly, especially in layer B in test pit 4 and 5, the types derived from fossil pollen from plants derived from plants that are useful in the family Compositae, Poaceae, Malvaceae and Papilionaceae. In addition, there is also a pollen that is not available on the site around Pemuteran, such as the family Pinaceae, Fagaceae, Daphnae, Sequoia, Geraniaceae, Cupressus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (4) ◽  
Ramdane Ramdini ◽  
Reham Fathey Ali ◽  
Ghania Sadouk ◽  
Ferroudja Medjdoub-Bensaad

The goal of this study was to record the malacofauna of the Kabylia region, Tizi-Ouzou, in Northern Algeria, at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, and to report the distribution pattern of terrestrial gastropod diversity in five different types of habitat (dune, agricultural fields, rural sites, forests, and mountain locations). A total of 33 species of terrestrial snails and slugs were recorded, which represented 27 genera of 19 families, mainly Geomitridae and Helicidae. The rural habitat was the richest, with 23 species, while the mountain habitat yielded 20 species. The dune and forest habitats showed the smallest species richness.

2021 ◽  
Vol VI (II) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Hassan Shah ◽  
Bakhtiar Khan ◽  
Saif Ul Islam

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has a strong and well-organized social structure. Family is the basic unit of this social structure, which has a hierarchal structure. The head of the family (Mashar) has a significant position in a family in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Therefore, the head of the family (Mashar) influences the socio-economic and political decisions of the family members as well as the politico-socio attitudes. The study presents the impact of the head of the family (Mashar) on the vote choice of an individual. The results show that the head of the family (Mashar) has a strong stimulus to shape electorate vote choice on polling day. The study conducted in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The targeted population for the study was registered voters (Eighteen years or above male/female) of different National Assembly constituencies. A multi-stage probability sampling technique is used for data collection.

Prerana Prakhar ◽  
Dr. Manoj Singh ◽  
Dr. R. K. Agrawal

Insects are most diverse, successful and dominant taxon of the animal kingdom. They are found in almost every habitat across the globe. It is due to their diverse body size, habit, fecundity, different modes of respiration, food diversity etc. Because of these diverse characteristics, they became an important component of our ecosystem. They have significant influence on agriculture, human health and natural resources. This was the main reason for analysing the status of insects’ diversity across Raipur city. During this study various species of insects were collected and identified for estimating the insect species diversity and abundance in the different types of habitats found in Raipur. Insects were collected from various habitats like public park, gardens, fruit & vegetable market, agricultural fields etc. Total 603 species from 38 families, from 10 orders of insects were obtained during the sampling from January2019 to February 2020. The contributions of different orders were as follows: Lepidoptera (6), Coleoptera (6), Hemiptera (6), Hymenoptera (5), Orthoptera (3), Dermaptera (1), Diptera (6), Odonata (3) and Isoptera (1) and Mantodea(1) were collected. Diptera were having highest species diversity which was followed by Hymenoptera. Biodiversity of insects were highest in gardens and agricultural fields. The diverse habitats present in and around Raipur provide a favorable climate for insects.

Marina D. Zerova ◽  
Hassan Ghahari ◽  
Victor N. Fursov ◽  
Gary A. P. Gibson ◽  
Mikdat Doğanlar

Abstract Species of Eurytomidae are associated with many communities of phytophagous insects, many being phytophagous (gall inducers, inquilines or seed feeders) and causing different types of injury to plants, others being entomophagous, including parasitoids of a wide range of insect hosts in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera (mainly Cecidomyiidae), Hymenoptera (Aculeata) and Lepidoptera, and even some being recorded from spider (Araneae) and cicada (Hemiptera) eggs. This chapter provides a checklist for the family Eurytomidae. It provides information on species diversity, host records, distribution records by province in Iran, as well as world distribution. Comparison of the eurytomid fauna with adjacent countries indicates that the fauna of Iran (127 species) is most diverse, followed by Turkey (98 species), Russia (74 species), Kazakhstan (60 species), Turkmenistan (33 species), Iraq (11 species), Azerbaijan (10 species), Armenia (nine species), Afghanistan and United Arab Emirates (both with four species) and Pakistan and Saudi Arabia (both with two species). No species have been recorded from Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman or Qatar. However, 150 eurytomid species were reported from the former USSR, indicating that the fauna was relatively well studied, though several species were recorded without indication of exact region within this large area. Of the countries adjacent to Iran, Turkey shares the highest number of known species with Iran (58 species), followed by Kazakhstan and Russia (both with 25 species), Turkmenistan (17 species), Azerbaijan (seven species), Iraq (six species), Armenia (four species) and Afghanistan (two species).

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 19165-19167
Muhammad Asghar Hassan ◽  
Imran Bodlah ◽  
Riaz Hussain ◽  
Azan Karam ◽  
Fazlullah ◽  

The genus Spilomyia Meigen, 1803 along with Spilomyia manicata (Rondani, 1865) are recorded for the first time from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The diagnostic characters with photographs and distribution map of this rarely known species from Pakistan and its neighboring countries are provided.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 101-111

This study intends to underpin the presence of strong foundation of ‘Sociological Model of Voting Behaviour’ (SMVB) in female voters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It hypothesizes that Patriarchal structure is a basic element to influence female voting preferences. It connects ‘Patriarchy’ with ‘Sociological Model of Voting Behaviour’. The study found that the Patriarchal structure of the family in the Pakhtuns dominated society in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is significantly involved in determining female voting preferences. There are some other socio-political and economic components that supplement patriarchy and dependency of the female voters on male family members. A mixed-method approach was adopted for data collection. Quantitative data was collected through closed-ended questionnaires from Northern, Central and Southern constituencies of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Interviews were also conducted from female respondents in different parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

2016 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 26
Zaidan Ali Jassem

This paper traces the Arabic origins or cognates of the “definite articles” in English and Indo-European languages from a radical linguistic (or lexical root) theory perspective. The data comprises the definite articles in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, Latin, Greek, Macedonian, Russian, Polish, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Persian, and Arabic. The results clearly indicate that five different types of such articles emerged in the data, all of which have true Arabic cognates with the same or similar forms and meanings, whose differences are due to natural and plausible causes and different routes of linguistic change, especially lexical, semantic, or morphological shift. Therefore, the results support the adequacy of the radical linguistic theory according to which, unlike the Family Tree Model or Comparative Method, Arabic, English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit not only belong to the same language family, renamed Eurabian or Urban family, but also are dialects of the same language, with Arabic being their origin all because only it shares the whole cognates with them all and because it has a huge phonetic, morphological, grammatical, and lexical variety. They also manifest fundamental flaws and grave drawbacks which plague English and Indo-European lexicography for ignoring Arabic as an ultimate ancestor and progenitor not only in the treatment of the topic at hand but in all others in general. On a more general level, they also show that there is a radical language from which all human languages stemmed and which has been preserved almost intact in Arabic, thus being the most conservative and productive language

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
He-Teng Zhang ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  
Hai-Sheng Wu ◽  
Jian Zeng ◽  
Yan Yang

Abstract Background Although some studies have investigated the bacterial community in vaginal tract of pregnant women, there are few reports about the viral community (virome) in this type of microenvironment. Methods To investigate the composition of virome in vaginal secretion samples, 40 vaginal secretion samples from pregnant women with vaginitis and 20 vaginal secretion samples from pregnant women without vaginitis, pooled into 4 and 2 sample pools, respectively, were subjected to viral metagenomic analysis. Results Results indicated virus sequences showing similarity to human papillomavirus (HPV), anellovirus, and norovirus were recovered from this cohort of pregnant women. Further analysis indicated that 15 different defined types and one unclassified type of HPV were detected from pregnant women with vaginitis while only 3 defined types of HPV were detected in pregnant women without vaginitis. Five different groups of viruses from the family Anelloviridae were present in pregnant women with but none of them were detected in pregnant women without vaginitis. Norovirus was detected in 3 out of the 4 sample pools from pregnant women with vaginitis but none in the pregnant women without vaginitis. Twelve complete genomes belonging to 10 different types of HPV, and 5 novel anllovirus genomes belonging 2 different genera in Anelloviridae were acquired from these libraries, based on which phylogenetical analysis and pairwise sequence comparison were performed. Phageome in these samples was also briefly characterized and compared between two groups. Conclusion Our data suggested that virome might play an important role in the progression of vaginitis in pregnant women.

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