khyber pakhtunkhwa province
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. Awan ◽  
M. M. Ali ◽  
I. Q. Afridi ◽  
S. Kalsoom ◽  
S. Firyal ◽  

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Ruhoollah ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
O. A. Al-Jabr ◽  
T. Khan ◽  
A. Khan ◽  

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Rafiq ◽  
S. Z. Ahmad ◽  
G. Yasmeen ◽  
A. Baset ◽  
M. A. Iqbal ◽  

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 365-383
Ubaid Ullah Ubaid ◽  
Joseph Ramanair ◽  
Souba Rethinasamy

This study aimed to investigate English as a second language (ESL) undergraduates’ sociocultural perspective of willingness to communicate (WTC) in English inside the classroom in relation to language use outside the classroom. The participants were 440 ESL undergraduates selected through the cluster sampling method from eight universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan. The data were collected through questionnaires on WTC in English inside the classroom and language use outside the classroom. The findings revealed that the participants’ level of WTC in English was high for most social interactions within the classroom, such as in groups, during activities, with the same gender, and when given preparation time in groups. The findings for language use showed that a mixture of languages, such as Pashto and Urdu, was predominantly used in the family, neighbourhood and friendship, religion, education, and transaction domains. In contrast, English was primarily used in the mass media and social media domains. Moreover, the findings revealed that WTC in English inside the classroom was positively correlated with social media, mass media, transaction and education domains but negatively correlated with the family domain.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1772
Faisal Khalid ◽  
Sami Ullah ◽  
Fariha Rehman ◽  
Rana Hadi ◽  
Nasreen Khan ◽  

Jatropha curcas (JC), as a biofuel plant, has been reported to have various desired characteristics such as high oil content seeds (27–40%), fast-growth, easy cultivation, drought tolerance, and can be grown on marginal soil and wasteland, requiring fewer nutrients and management and does not interfere with existing food crops, insects, and pest resistance. This investigation was the first study of its type to use climatological data, blue/green water footprints, and JC seed production to identify suitable sites for JC bioenergy plantation using the AquaCrop FAO model across the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in northwest Pakistan. The JC seed yield (10 ton/ha) was at a maximum in the districts of Bannu, Karak, Hangu, Kurram, North Waziristan, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan, and Dera Ismail Khan, in addition to its frontier regions, Tank, Peshawar, Mohmand, Orakzai, Khyber, Kohat, Charsadda, Mardan, Swabi, and Nowshera, respectively. Green water footprint (264 m3/ton of JC seed) and blue water footprint (825 m3/ton) was less in these areas. Furthermore, the results revealed that, depending on climatological circumstances, the southern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is more appropriate for JC bioenergy plantation than the northern region. The districts of Bannu, Karak, Hangu, Kurram, North Waziristan, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan, Dera Ismail Khan, and its frontier regions, Tank, Peshawar, Mohmand, Orakzai, Khyber, and Kohat, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province were identified to be the most ideal places for JC bioenergy plantation. As a result, under the Billion Tree Afforestation Project (BTAP) and the Green Pakistan Project, the Forest Department of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa should consider planting JC species in the province’s southern region. Furthermore, this research will provide scientific information to government and private sector officials for better management and optimum yield of the JC biofuel crop, as well as for the promotion of energy forestry in Pakistan.

Irfan Ullah ◽  
Muhammad Adeel Khan

Effective provision of justice remains essential for preventing wartime grievances into feuds and mass conflict in strengthening the state and improving accountability. It can lead to quick and cheaper resolution of disputes. This research focuses on evaluating the informal system of governance and justice delivery system in Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It evaluated the institutions of justice delivery (both formal and informal) in terms of structure, functions, and efficiency. The study reveals that informal mechanisms of dispute resolution is still preferred at large, despite the availability of formal institutions for this purpose. Majority of the respondents showed distrust on the formal institutions of justice delivery and dispute resolution across the sample population. This mistrust has been related to the ineffectiveness in terms of lengthy process of handling disputes of various types and the involved financial cost. Shariah and custom remained the preferred type of law to be adopted as compared to state law/statute for dispute resolution. The study concludes that state institutions of justice delivery and dispute resolution should work in collaboration with the informal institutions for effective provision of dispute resolution and justice delivery. A mixed method approach of depth interviews focus group and household survey is employed for collecting primary data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 37-43
Syed Azmat Ali Shah ◽  
Waqas Ahmad ◽  
Shahzada Khan ◽  
Naqash Tayyab ◽  
Amjad Ali ◽  

Safety in schools and universities is essential to guarantee occupants' protection from natural and human-made hazards. An existing building hazard assessment provides the scope to understand the vulnerability situation and recommend safety measures. This study was conducted on buildings within the University of Buner located in the Buner district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Two potential hazards earthquake and fire were considered. UN-Habitat Tools were used for the assessment of safety for multi hazards. To assess the seismic and fire hazards vulnerability, the university structures were assessed for four aspects: planning, architectural, structural and non-structural. It was identified that the building's safety compliance is only 43% as a whole and, in particular, 33% vulnerable to seismic risk and 27% susceptible to fire hazard and requires rehabilitation measures to build the resistance and resilience of the structure to guarantee the safety of the occupants.

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