Fatty Acid Composition
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

12406
(FIVE YEARS 2980)

H-INDEX

142
(FIVE YEARS 30)

Author(s):  
Sho Shimada ◽  
Ryosuke Nakai ◽  
Kotaro Aoki ◽  
Sakae Kudoh ◽  
Satoshi Imura ◽  
...  

This study characterized a unique cultivated representative of the genus Legionella isolated from an Antarctic lake. This psychrotolerant strain had some common properties of known Legionella species but also displayed other characteristics, such as plasticity in fatty acid composition and an enrichment of mobile genes in the genome.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2948
Author(s):  
Tanya Kogan ◽  
Dana Grossman Dahan ◽  
Ronit Laor ◽  
Nurit Argov-Argaman ◽  
Yoel Zeron ◽  
...  

An association between progressive motility (PM) and spermatozoa fertility competence has been suggested. However, the mechanism that underlies PM is not clear enough. We examined physiological characteristics and fatty acid composition of fresh spermatozoa with high and low PM. Additional analysis of fatty acid composition and structural characteristics was performed on spermatozoa samples with high and low progressively motile spermatozoa’s survival (PMSS), i.e., the ratio between the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa after and before cryopreservation. Finally, a fertility field trial was conducted to examine the association between the number of PM spermatozoa within the insemination straw post thawing and conception rate. Analysis of fresh spermatozoa revealed a higher omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in ejaculates with low PM relative to those with high PM (p < 0.01). The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in low-PMSS fresh samples (p < 0.05) relative to their high-PMSS counterparts. Fresh samples with high-PMSS expressed a higher mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.05) and a higher proportion of viable cells that expressed reactive oxygen species (ROS; p < 0.05). Post-thawing evaluation revealed a reduced proportion of progressively motile sperm, with a prominent effect in samples with high PM relative to low PM, defined before freezing (p < 0.01). No differences in spermatozoa mitochondrial membrane potential or ROS level were found post-thawing. A fertility study revealed a positive correlation between the number of progressively motile spermatozoa within a standard insemination straw and conception rate (p < 0.05). Considering these, the bull PMSS is suggested to be taken into account at the time of straw preparation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samad Rahimnejad ◽  
Konrad Dabrowski ◽  
Marisol Izquierdo ◽  
Nima Hematyar ◽  
Aiman Imentai ◽  
...  

This 10-week feeding experiment examined the effects of supplementing vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) in oxidized oil diets on growth, fatty acid composition, blood physiological indicators, innate immunity, antioxidant capacity, and liver and intestine histology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Four diets were produced including a fresh fish oil containing diet (FFO diet), an oxidized fish oil containing diet (OFO diet), and OFO diet supplemented with 500 mg kg–1 VC and 400 mg kg–1 VE (OFO+C500+E400 diet) or 1,000 mg kg–1 VC and 800 mg kg–1 VE (OFO+C1000+E800 diet). Four hundred and twenty fish averaging 46.9 ± 0.32 g were stocked into 12 tanks and fed the diets twice a day to visual satiety. The results showed no significant effect of OFO or vitamins supplementation on growth, feed intake and feed utilization (P &gt; 0.05). The groups that received OFO and OFO+C1000+E800 diets had significantly (P &lt; 0.05) lower hepatosomatic indices than the other groups. Muscle fatty acid composition showed decreased proportion of 15:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 16:2n-4, 18:1n-5, 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) and total saturated fatty acids in OFO group. Whereas higher percentages of 20:3n-6 and 20:3n-3 were found in OFO group. In addition, the highest ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) was detected in OFO+C500+E400 group. The highest serum triglyceride concentration was recorded in the OFO group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in OFO and OFO+C1000+E800 groups compared to OFO+C500+E400 group. Furthermore, significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity in blood was found in OFO and OFO+C500+E400 groups. Significantly lower serum lysozyme, antiprotease, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were recorded in OFO group compared to FFO and OFO+C500+E400 groups, and an opposite trend was observed for malondialdehyde concentration. Muscle VC and VE concentrations, and liver and intestine histology remained unaffected. To conclude, feeding diet containing oxidized oil with peroxide value of 182 meq kg–1 with/without VC and VE supplementation did not influence growth and tissue VC and VE concentrations of rainbow trout. However, supplementing 500 mg kg–1 VC and 400 mg kg–1 VE reversed the adverse effects of OFO on non-specific immune response and antioxidant capacity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 385-386
Author(s):  
Aliute Udoka ◽  
Maslyn A Greene ◽  
Susan K Duckett

Abstract Excess fat deposition is costly to the producer in terms of input and final product; it also usually does not occur equally across all adipose depots. Further examination is necessary to determine a correlation between varying gene expression and fatty acid composition in different tissue depots, and further, across different breeds. Texel-Suffolk (n = 5) and Suffolk-Suffolk (n = 4) lambs were finished to 203 d of age and used to compare both mRNA and microRNA (miR) gene expression changes between breed and among tissue depots. Seven different depots were harvested and snap-frozen from all nine lambs. The liver, longissimus muscle of the rib, kidney fat, mesenteric fat, omental fat, subcutaneous fat, and intermuscular fat were all harvested. Texel-sired lambs had greater (P &lt; 0.05) flank streaking, quality grade, and weight of fat depots compared to Suffolk. Texel-cross lambs had higher (P &lt; 0.05) oleic-to-stearic fatty acid ratio than Suffolk lambs in this study, displaying a breed difference concerning this desaturation ratio. Tissue and breed interactions were observed for oleic-to-stearic and palmitoleic-to-palmitic ratio differences (P &lt; 0.05) depending on tissue type. Tissue and breed interactions were trending in various tissues concerning the expression of the gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1(SCD-1). SCD-1 seemed to be upregulated (P &lt; 0.10) in a multitude of tissues while others do not appear to be differentially expressed, dependent upon breed. Data showed an association between SCD-1 and mi-199a-3p among different tissue variations. This may suggest that adipose tissue is more complex than what is currently known. Lipogenic gene expression differed between tissue and adipose depots, and could potentially broaden targets that could aid in maximizing animal efficiency.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 324-324
Author(s):  
Sarah C Klopatek ◽  
Xiang Yang ◽  
James W Oltjen ◽  
Payam Vahmani

Abstract Retail sales of labeled fresh grass-fed beef in the U.S. have grown from $17 million in 2012 to $272 million in 2016. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of four typical grass-fed and conventional beef systems raised in the western United States on beef fatty-acid composition. Treatments included: 1) steers stocked on pasture then finished in a feedyard (CON), 2) steers grass-fed for 20 months (GF20), 3) steers grass-fed for 20 months with a 45-day grain finish (GR45), and 4) steers grass-fed for 25 months (GF25). Fatty acids were analyzed with GC using a 100 m CPSil 88 capillary column. All statistical analyses were performed using a GLM procedure in R. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations were significantly different across treatments (P &lt; 0.05) with GR45 having the lowest SFA of 43% and GF25 having the highest SFA at 46%. Cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (c-MUFA) particularly oleic acid, which is known as a heart healthy fatty acids, were highest for CON at 44% and lowest for GF20 at 37% (P &lt; 0.05). Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were significantly lower for the grain-fed treatments (0.54 CON and 0.63 GR45; P &lt; 0.05) compared to grass-fed treatments (0.93 GF20 and 0.86 GF25; P &lt; 0.05). The grass-fed treatments were higher in n-3 PUFA (3.67 GF20 and 2.29 GF25) than CON (0.79; P &lt; 0.05), however feeding grain for a short period of time did not decrease n-3 PUFA concentrations to the CON level (GF45 2.51; P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, our findings show that beef from grain-fed beef management systems is higher in c-MUFA, while grass-fed is significantly higher in bioactive fatty acids including CLA and branched chain fatty acids. Additional studies are needed to determine if fatty acid profiles between grass-fed and grain-fed beef would result in different health outcomes for the consumers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 232-233
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Karpova ◽  
Ludmila Chizhova ◽  
Eugenia Surzhikova

Abstract The early period of postnatal ontogeny of sheep is characterized by a variety of metabolic processes that result in the formation and consolidation of a certain type of metabolism. A special role is played by lipids, which together with proteins and carbohydrates constitute the bulk of organic compounds, cells and the organism as a whole. The purpose of this research was to study the polymorphism of CAST and GH genes as well as its association with the fatty acid composition of blood plasma lipids in lambs. The content of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography in the form of methyl esters. From the data obtained, it follows that in all studied ontogeny periods the peripheral blood of sheep with CASTNN and CASTMM genotypes had a higher concentration of fatty acids such as palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids. The content is as follows: 27.58, 45.40, 3.16, 0.28% vs. 26.21, 45.31, 3.62, 0.18% at the age of 2 months; 25.07, 43.25, 6.05, 1.74% vs. 23.24, 38.76, 6.49, 1.32% at the age of 4 months; 20.64, 22.26, 14.17, 3.38% vs. 17.64, 19.91, 15.07, 2.46% at the age of 8 months (P ˂ 0.05), (P ˂ 0.01). Studies of blood lipid composition of GHBBand GHAA genotype carriers showed that palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids were dominant: 27.95, 27.96, 19.04% vs. 26.08, 23.88, 17.56% at the age of 2 months, 46.87, 39.87, 22.37% vs. 3.24, 6.87, 15.56% at the age of 4 months; 0.45, 1.68, 3.81% vs. 0.29, 1.29, 3.19% at the age of 8 months (P ˂ 0.05), (P ˂ 0.01). Thus, this study emphasizes that there is a close relationship between the ratio of fatty acids in total blood lipids in lambs and the intensity of growth and development, ensuring and controlling the direction of biochemical processes in the growth and development of young sheep.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 111-111
Author(s):  
Susan K Duckett ◽  
Alexandra R Thomas ◽  
Aliute Udoka ◽  
Maslyn A Greene

Abstract There is increased competition in the protein market with the entrance of cell-based and plant-based products. Consumers issues with consumption of red meat typically center around saturated (SFA) fatty acid content and environmental impacts associated with production. Nutritional system used for finishing beef and lamb alters fatty acid composition of the meat product. Forages and grasses that are utilized in a grass-fed finishing system increases the animal’s intake of a-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), the main fatty acid present in plants (57%) that can be converted to eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic (C22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3) acids in animal tissues. Grain-fed finishing systems increases the animal’s intake of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), the main fatty acid present in corn grain (57%), that can be converted to arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) in animal tissues. Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is extensive in the rumen (&gt; 80% of dietary PUFA) and rumen protected supplements are needed to enhance PUFA content of ruminant meat products. Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids are the majority (&gt;75% of total fatty acids) of fatty acids present in ruminant meat products. Therefore, finding approaches to attain greater desaturation of palmitic and stearic acids to their MUFA products, palmitoleic and oleic acids, would be most beneficial. The content of oleic acid and MUFA in beef is highly heritable and some breeds have high levels of MUFA. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of MUFA. More research is needed to find ways of altering SCD1 expression in meat animal tissues to enhance MUFA and lower SFA content.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 493-494
Author(s):  
Abner A Rodriguez ◽  
Aixa Rivera ◽  
Susan K Duckett ◽  
Alana Bayne

Abstract Interest in meat quality and its fatty acid composition stems mainly from the need to find ways to produce healthier meat. In Puerto Rico, no documented information is available on the nutritional profile in the meat of lambs raised under local conditions (crossbred animals raised in heat stress and grazing naturalized pastures, NP). The quality of meat and fatty acid composition was evaluated, of 12 lambs grazed NP &gt; 8h, tropical grass hay and water ad libitum, 150g of concentrate (12% CP), and mineral blocks. Six animals were slaughtered at two live weight of 22 (SW1) or 35 (SW2) kg to determine the meat quality given by pH, color, nutrient content, and the fatty acid composition in the Longissimus dorsi muscle. The data was analyzed using a completely randomized design with two treatments and six repetitions. SW1 and SW2 had similar pH (5.57 vs. 5.73), but lambs at SW1 displayed lower (P &lt; 0.01) a* value than those slaughtered at SW2 (11.18 vs 13.57), but L* (38.91 vs 37.56) and b* (10.72 vs 10.67) values were similar. On both slaughter weight moisture (75.63 vs 74.51), ash (4.10 vs 3.34), crude protein (24.36 vs 25.12), and crude fat (2.30 vs 2.01) percentage of the meat was similar. The total lipid content (0.953 vs 2.25), saturated fatty acids (34.68 vs 42.98), and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.36 vs 37.28) of lambs at SW1 was lower than those at SW2, but n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.74 vs 8.57and 6.61 vs 2.88, respectively) were higher (P &lt; 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was similar for both SW groups (2.84 vs 2.96). Differences in individual fatty acid content due to the slaughter weight were observed. In conclusion, the meat quality and the fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi were affected by slaughter weight of lambs grazing naturalized pastures.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document