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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Ismaeel Al Ridhawi ◽  
Ouns Bouachir ◽  
Moayad Aloqaily ◽  
Azzedine Boukerche

Internet of Things (IoT) systems have advanced greatly in the past few years, especially with the support of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions. Numerous AI-supported IoT devices are playing a significant role in providing complex and user-specific smart city services. Given the multitude of heterogeneous wireless networks, the plethora of computer and storage architectures and paradigms, and the abundance of mobile and vehicular IoT devices, true smart city experiences are only attainable through a cooperative intelligent and secure IoT framework. This article provides an extensive study on different cooperative systems and envisions a cooperative solution that supports the integration and collaboration among both centralized and distributed systems, in which intelligent AI-supported IoT devices such as smart UAVs provide support in the data collection, processing and service provisioning process. Moreover, secure and collaborative decentralized solutions such as Blockchain are considered in the service provisioning process to enable enhanced privacy and authentication features for IoT applications. As such, user-specific complex services and applications within smart city environments will be delivered and made available in a timely, secure, and efficient manner.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Rafiq ◽  
S. Z. Ahmad ◽  
G. Yasmeen ◽  
A. Baset ◽  
M. A. Iqbal ◽  

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-50
Jianyi Zhou ◽  
Junjie Chen ◽  
Dan Hao

Although regression testing is important to guarantee the software quality in software evolution, it suffers from the widely known cost problem. To address this problem, existing researchers made dedicated efforts on test prioritization, which optimizes the execution order of tests to detect faults earlier; while practitioners in industry leveraged more computing resources to save the time cost of regression testing. By combining these two orthogonal solutions, in this article, we define the problem of parallel test prioritization, which is to conduct test prioritization in the scenario of parallel test execution to reduce the cost of regression testing. Different from traditional sequential test prioritization, parallel test prioritization aims at generating a set of test sequences, each of which is allocated in an individual computing resource and executed in parallel. In particular, we propose eight parallel test prioritization techniques by adapting the existing four sequential test prioritization techniques, by including and excluding testing time in prioritization. To investigate the performance of the eight parallel test prioritization techniques, we conducted an extensive study on 54 open-source projects and a case study on 16 commercial projects from Baidu , a famous search service provider with 600M monthly active users. According to the two studies, parallel test prioritization does improve the efficiency of regression testing, and cost-aware additional parallel test prioritization technique significantly outperforms the other techniques, indicating that this technique is a good choice for practical parallel testing. Besides, we also investigated the influence of two external factors, the number of computing resources and time allowed for parallel testing, and find that more computing resources indeed improve the performance of parallel test prioritization. In addition, we investigated the influence of two more factors, test granularity and coverage criterion, and find that parallel test prioritization can still accelerate regression testing in parallel scenario. Moreover, we investigated the benefit of parallel test prioritization on the regression testing process of continuous integration, considering both the cumulative acceleration performance and the overhead of prioritization techniques, and the results demonstrate the superiority of parallel test prioritization.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 618
Emanuela Marzi ◽  
Mirko Morini ◽  
Agostino Gambarotta

Europe stated the ambitious target of becoming carbon neutral by 2050 to combat climate change and meet the requirements imposed by the Paris Agreement, and renewable energy has proved to be a promising solution for the decarbonization of many sectors. Nonetheless, their aleatory nature leads to grid unbalances due to the difference between supply and demand. Storage solutions are needed, and electrofuels become a key factor in this context: they are fuels produced from electricity, which leads to carbon-neutral fuels if it originates from renewable sources. These can constitute a key solution to store the surplus energy and to decarbonize the so-called hard-to-abate sectors. Electrofuel production technologies have not yet been fully developed, and, in this context, extensive study of the state-of-the-art of existing projects can be very useful for researchers and developers. This work researches the European projects funded by the Horizon 2020 Programme regarding electrofuel production. The projects were analyzed in-depth using specific features, and the results were presented.

Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Valentin Ion ◽  
Irina Ielciu ◽  
Anca-Gabriela Cârje ◽  
Daniela Lucia Muntean ◽  
Gianina Crişan ◽  

The Hypericum genus contains one of the few genera of flowering plants that contains a species with authorization for marketing as a traditional medicine, H. perforatum. Due to the fact that this is a large genus, comprising numerous species, a large amount of interest has been shown over the years in the study of its various pharmacological activities. The chemical composition of these species is quite similar, containing compounds belonging to the class of phloroglucinol derivatives, naphthodianthrones, phenols, flavonoids and essential oils. Taking all of this into consideration, the present study aims to offer an overview of the species of the genus from the point of view of their extraction techniques and analysis methods. An extensive study on the scientific literature was performed, and it revealed a wide range of solvents and extraction methods, among which ethanol and methanol, together with maceration and ultrasonication, are the most frequent. Regarding analysis methods, separation and spectral techniques are the most employed. Therefore, the present study provides necessary data for future studies on the species of the genus, offering a complete overview and a possible basis for their development.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 551
Zdeněk Pitrmuc ◽  
Jan Šimota ◽  
Libor Beránek ◽  
Petr Mikeš ◽  
Vladislav Andronov ◽  

This paper aims at an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of mechanical and microstructural properties of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (W. Nr. 1.4404, CL20ES) produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The experiment in its first part includes an extensive study of the anisotropy of mechanical and microstructural properties in relation to the built orientation and the direction of loading, which showed significant differences in tensile properties among samples. The second part of the experiment is devoted to the influence of the process parameter focus level (FL) on mechanical properties, where a 48% increase in notched toughness was recorded when the level of laser focus was identical to the level of melting. The FL parameter is not normally considered a process parameter; however, it can be intentionally changed in the service settings of the machine or by incorrect machine repair and maintenance. Evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties was performed using the tensile test, Charpy impact test, Brinell hardness measurement, microhardness matrix measurement, porosity analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy. Across the whole spectrum of samples, performed analysis confirmed the high quality of LPBF additive manufactured material, which can be compared with conventionally produced material. A very low level of porosity in the range of 0.036 to 0.103% was found. Microstructural investigation of solution annealed (1070 °C) tensile test samples showed an outstanding tendency to recrystallization, grain polygonization, annealing twins formation, and even distribution of carbides in solid solution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ramu Anandakrishnan ◽  
Hope Tobey ◽  
Steven Nguyen ◽  
Osscar Sandoval ◽  
Bradley G. Klein ◽  

Abstract Context Age-dependent dementia is a devastating disorder afflicting a growing older population. Although pharmacological agents improve symptoms of dementia, age-related comorbidities combined with adverse effects often outweigh their clinical benefits. Therefore, nonpharmacological therapies are being investigated as an alternative. In a previous pilot study, aged rats demonstrated improved spatial memory after osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) treatment. Objectives In this continuation of the pilot study, we examine the effect of OCMM on gene expression to elicit possible explanations for the improvement in spatial memory. Methods OCMM was performed on six of 12 elderly rats every day for 7 days. Rats were then euthanized to obtain the brain tissue, from which RNA samples were extracted. RNA from three treated and three controls were of sufficient quality for sequencing. These samples were sequenced utilizing next-generation sequencing from Illumina NextSeq. The Cufflinks software suite was utilized to assemble transcriptomes and quantify the RNA expression level for each sample. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed that OCMM significantly affected the expression of 36 genes in the neuronal pathway (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.004). The top five neuronal genes with the largest-fold change were part of the cholinergic neurotransmission mechanism, which is known to affect cognitive function. In addition, 39.9% of 426 significant differentially expressed (SDE) genes (FDR<0.004) have been previously implicated in neurological disorders. Overall, changes in SDE genes combined with their role in central nervous system signaling pathways suggest a connection to previously reported OCMM-induced behavioral and biochemical changes in aged rats. Conclusions Results from this pilot study provide sufficient evidence to support a more extensive study with a larger sample size. Further investigation in this direction will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of OCMM and its potential in clinical applications. With clinical validation, OCMM could represent a much-needed low-risk adjunct treatment for age-related dementia including Alzheimer’s disease.

2022 ◽  
Ekaterina Savel'eva

The monograph presents an extensive study of new forms of labor organization in the context of the development of technical, technological, financial, economic and socio-cultural factors. The distinctive features of digital labor platforms, their classification, as well as the strategies of key players in the global and Russian-speaking distance labor markets are given. Based on the analysis of current international analytical reviews, foreign and domestic scientific publications, current legislation and court decisions, the author gives approaches and methods of regulatory regulation of platform labor. The author does not ignore such controversial issues as: direct and indirect methods of state influence on the activities of digital labor platforms, problems of social responsibility, as well as prospects for the development of platform cooperativism in the world and Russia as an alternative to labor platforms focused on the global level. It is of interest to researchers, government authorities, teachers of higher educational institutions, graduate students and students studying these problems.

Priyadarshni Patel ◽  
Jeganathan Ramesh Babu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Thangiah Geetha

Obesity is caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. Despite extensive study, contemporary through diet, exercise, education, surgery, and pharmacological treatments, no effective long-term solution has been found to this epidemic. Over the last decade, there has been a tremendous advancement in understanding the science of epigenetics, as well as a rise in public interest in learning more about the influence of diet and lifestyle choices on the health of an individual. Without affecting the underlying DNA sequence, epigenetic alterations impact gene expression. Previous animal studies have shown a link between the type of diet and expression or suppression of obesity genes, but there are very few human studies that demonstrate the relationship between dietary intake and obesity gene expression. This review highlights the effects of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein intake from the diet on obesity-related genes.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Farzad Badkoobeh ◽  
Hossein Mostaan ◽  
Mahdi Rafiei ◽  
Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad ◽  
Filippo Berto

Ferritic–martensitic dual-phase (DP) steels are prominent and advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) broadly employed in automotive industries. Hence, extensive study is conducted regarding the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of DP steels due to the high importance of DP steels in these industries. In this respect, this paper was aimed at reviewing the microstructural characteristics and strengthening mechanisms of DP steels. This review article represents that the main microstructural characteristics of DP steels include the ferrite grain size (FGS), martensite volume fraction (MVF), and martensite morphology (MM), which play a key role in the strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties. In other words, these can act as strengthening factors, which were separately considered in this paper. Thus, the properties of DP steels are intensely governed by focusing on these characteristics (i.e., FGS, MVF, and MM). This review article addressed the improvement techniques of strengthening mechanisms and the effects of hardening factors on mechanical properties. The relevant techniques were also made up of several processing routes, e.g., thermal cycling, cold rolling, hot rolling, etc., that could make a great strength–ductility balance. Lastly, this review paper could provide substantial assistance to researchers and automotive engineers for DP steel manufacturing with excellent properties. Hence, researchers and automotive engineers are also able to design automobiles using DP steels that possess the lowest fuel consumption and prevent accidents that result from premature mechanical failures.

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