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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255186
Author(s):  
Guoping Ding ◽  
Prince Asare Vitenu-Sackey ◽  
Wenshu Chen ◽  
Xiaofeng Shi ◽  
Jun Yan ◽  
...  

In many developing countries, the deficiency in public and private investment has resulted in lower growth rates and stagnation in productivity. The need for a new paradigm of foreign investment and aid in agricultural production is becoming exigent in developing countries. Given the decline in per capita arable land, the rise in production costs, and the increase in population and urbanization, major changes in agriculture have been proposed to boost agricultural production. This present study endeavours to contribute to the existing literature by proving whether foreign capital and economic freedom could catapult food production into the much-anticipated growth. In that regard, we performed GLS with correlated disturbances, system GMM dynamic panel data estimators and D-H causality test. The study found that foreign capital as a whole plays a positive role in food production in developing and least developed countries, but FDI is insignificant in least-developed countries. Moreover, economic freedom plays a positive role in food production in least-developed countries but negative in developing countries. Policymakers and governments should create an enabling environment for sustainable food production.


Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 776
Author(s):  
Cláudia M. Viana ◽  
Dulce Freire ◽  
Patrícia Abrantes ◽  
Jorge Rocha

Agricultural statistical data enable the detection and interpretation of the development of agriculture and the food supply situation over time, which is essential for food security evaluation in any country. Based on the historical agricultural statistics, this study produces a long spatial time-series with annual production values of three cereals relevant to global food security—wheat, maize, and rice, aiming to provide geographical and historical perspectives. Therefore, we reconstructed past and current production patterns and trends at the district level over 169 years, which supported a space–time cross-reading of the general characteristics of the regional agricultural production value distributions and relative densities in Portugal. Particularly, the production trends of wheat, maize, and rice showed three different situations: growth (maize), stability (rice), and decline (wheat). For decades, maize and wheat production alternated, depending on agricultural years and political aspects, such as the Wheat Campaign (1929–1938). The changes over time presented a pattern that, in the case of these three cereals, enabled a clear division of the country into major regions according to cereal production. Overall, maize and rice, both grown on irrigated croplands, presented a similar pattern in some regions of Portugal, mainly the central region. In this study, a preliminary analysis was presented and related to successive public policies; however, notably, there are more lessons to be learned from this long spatial time-series.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8242
Author(s):  
Godwin Kofi Vondolia ◽  
Håkan Eggert ◽  
Jesper Stage

The fertilizer subsidies reintroduced in various sub-Saharan African countries from 2007 aim to increase agricultural production and assist in the development of fertilizer markets. The present study evaluates the impact of a fertilizer subsidy program among farmers in Ghana who employ highly mechanized irrigation systems. The results indicate that farmers who received fertilizer under the subsidy program used 45% more fertilizer. However, they did not use more weedicide and were likely to reduce investment in soil and water conservation. Thus, the income gains resulting from the subsidy programs were not invested in such non-targeted inputs. Moreover, the program beneficiaries’ reduced investment in soil and water conservation may explain the finding that the subsidy did not improve their productivity. Thus, since fertilizer subsidy programs alone may not improve productivity, it may be necessary to target spending explicitly on complementary inputs such as investing in soil and water conservation.


Kybernetes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Ma ◽  
Yidi Wang ◽  
Yun Teng

PurposeChina's agricultural production trusteeship is characterized by the organic link between household operation of small-scale peasant economy and agricultural socialized services, which releases agricultural development vitality and promotes agricultural modernization. As one of the agricultural production trusteeship modes, the whole process trusteeship is suitable for the actual situation of China's aging population and labor force transfer. This paper aims to construct an evolutionary game model containing multistakeholder to explore the behavior decisions through numerical simulation and to provide useful suggestions for the formation of a positive and stable trusteeship relationship and the sound development of the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production.Design/methodology/approachThe paper incorporates village committees, service organizations and farmers into the same research framework, selects “guarantee + dividends” as the income distribution method and applies the evolutionary game method to analyze behavioral choices and evolutionary paths of stakeholders. By constructing the expectation function, establishing the replicator dynamic equations and analyzing the tripartite evolutionary stability strategy, the authors explore the factors that affect the stakeholders’ strategy choice and determine asymptotically stable points and stability conditions.Findings(1) There is a game relationship among village committees, farmers and service organizations in the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production, asymptotically stable points (0,0,1) and (1,1,1) are obtained through calculation. (2) The proportion of stakeholders' strategy choice, the weight of the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production in the performance appraisal of the village committee, the village committee's supervision cost, the village committee's reputation effect and the penalty for false dividends of the service organization will affect the speed at which the curve representing the tripartite relationship approaches two asymptotically stable points.Research limitations/implicationsThe countermeasures proposed in the paper have excellent reference value. (1) For areas that have realized the project: Village committees can solve the trusteeship problems exposed in the initial areas and improve farmers' satisfaction with the project. (2) For areas that have not realized the project: Those regions will receive more experience references and enhance their confidence in this project. The limitation of the paper is that it takes the main grain-producing areas in only the three northeastern provinces of China as the research object. The next research object will be extended to the whole country.Practical implicationsThis paper propose strategies for realizing the orderly operation of the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production: first, increase the proportion of stakeholders' strategy choices; second, reduce the village committee's supervision cost; third, increase the weight of the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production in the performance appraisal of the village committee; fourth, improve the village committee's reputation effect; fifth, increase the penalty for false dividends of the service organization.Originality/valueAgricultural production trusteeship is in its initial stage in China. The interest relationships between stakeholders are not yet clear. The paper innovatively applies the evolutionary game method to the research field of the whole process trusteeship of agricultural production. According to conditions in China, based on ensuring the guaranteed income, the paper introduces the dividend income variable and establishes a tripartite game model of village committees, service organization and farmers. The paper provides suggestions for the orderly and healthy development of China's agricultural production trusteeship and provides experience for the operation of other modes of agricultural production trusteeship.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 108-131
Author(s):  
Adam Heinrich

Excavations at the Vermeule-Mundy House uncovered a rich artifact deposit dating to the mid-1860s. The artifacts can be associated with Morris Cohen, an early Jewish farmer to settle in rural New Jersey, where he raised a family, a range of animals, and grains, and produced a large amount of butter. In an effort to deter a groundhog from burrowing under their porch, the Cohens placed hundreds of ceramic, glass, and iron objects into the burrow. These artifacts provide information about their table settings and agricultural production, and they may provide details about Cohen’s socioeconomic status as well as his Jewish ethnicity through the use of multiple ceramic and glass sets as well as a preference for olive oil.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 725-733
Author(s):  
Yanyan Ge ◽  
Zichao Su ◽  
Maohua Xiao ◽  
Min Kang ◽  
Ruyi Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract. The treatment and utilization of straw is a considerably complex type of problem in agricultural production. A mobile pellet harvester integrates the mechanisms of picking, drying, crushing, and pelletizing, thereby solving the problem caused by the traditional method and reducing human effort and material resources. The crushing mechanism of a mobile pellet harvester was designed and studied, and the shape of the hammer slice was innovatively proposed, thereby substantially improving the working efficiency during the crushing process. Ansys finite element analysis software was used to perform static and dynamic analyses of the key components of the crushing mechanism (i.e., hammer slices, hammer framework, and crushing spindle). These components have sufficient rigidity, strength, and good dynamic balance to meet the working requirements of the straw pulverizer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Natalia V. Trusova ◽  
Natalia M. Rubtsova ◽  
Mykola O. Rubtsov ◽  
Iryna O. Chkan ◽  
Nataliia H. Radchenko ◽  
...  

The article deals with the complex indicative forecasting of agricultural insurance parameters, which have approximate empirical dependences of variables and provide approximation of actuarial calculations of the franchise, in order to optimize the rates of insurance compensation for losses in agricultural production. The tools for minimizing the risks of agricultural production are substantiated. The typology of instruments for regulating the risks of agricultural production by transferring their risk distribution in the institutional environment and market infrastructure is studied. It is proved that vertical integration has a positive effect of compensation for losses of agricultural production, taking into account alternative diversification combinations with actual variables and the occurrence of a certain insurance event. Multicriteria optimization of the parameters of partial distribution of risks of agricultural production, which simultaneously provide the maximum possible value of the expected return with a minimum value of the risk of the portfolio of assets of agricultural enterprises, is fulfilled. The utility function for accidental consequences in agricultural insurance is substantiated, as it guarantees the effective indicator of income at variable values of uncertainty. Approximate empirical dependences of variables are determined, which provide approximation of actuarial calculations of the franchise, in order to optimize the rates of insurance indemnity in agricultural production. Models of indicative forecasting of optimal parameters of agricultural insurance on the market of agricultural products of Ukraine on insurance payments and insurance premiums, which have a decreasing function, have been developed; insured sum and franchise have dynamic fluctuations.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (14) ◽  
pp. 4366
Author(s):  
Judit Oláh ◽  
József Popp ◽  
Szabolcs Duleba ◽  
Anna Kiss ◽  
Zoltán Lakner

The optimization of the energy portfolio for a small, open, landlocked economy with rather limited fossil resources is a complex task because it must find a long-range, sustainable balance between the various goals of society under the constant pressure of different interest groups. The opinions of independent, informed experts could be an essential input in the decision-making process. The goal of this research was to determine the relative importance of the values and goals potentially accompanying projects, based on the utilization of bioenergy. The current research is based on a wide-ranging survey of 65 non-partisan experts, applying the Pareto analytic hierarchy process to ensure the unbiased prioritization of project segments. The results of the survey put a spotlight on the importance of the economic role of bioenergy projects. Contrary to previous expectations and considerations, the social functions of these projects have hitherto been given relatively little importance. The results highlight the importance of bioenergy in increasing the income-generating capacity of agricultural producers by optimal utilization of natural resources for agricultural production. This can be achieved without considerable deterioration of the natural environment. Modern agricultural production is characterized by high levels of mechanization and automatization. Under these conditions, the social role of bioenergy projects (job creation) is rather limited.


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