oral anticoagulant
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Peter A. Noseworthy ◽  
Megan E. Branda ◽  
Marleen Kunneman ◽  
Ian G. Hargraves ◽  
Angela L. Sivly ◽  

Background Guidelines promote shared decision‐making (SDM) for anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation. We recently showed that adding a within‐encounter SDM tool to usual care (UC) increases patient involvement in decision‐making and clinician satisfaction, without affecting encounter length. We aimed to estimate the extent to which use of an SDM tool changed adherence to the decided care plan and clinical safety end points. Methods and Results We conducted a multicenter, encounter‐level, randomized trial assessing the efficacy of UC with versus without an SDM conversation tool for use during the clinical encounter (Anticoagulation Choice) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation considering starting or reviewing anticoagulation treatment. We conducted a chart and pharmacy review, blinded to randomization status, at 10 months after enrollment to assess primary adherence (proportion of patients who were prescribed an anticoagulant who filled their first prescription) and secondary adherence (estimated using the proportion of days for which treatment was supplied and filled for direct oral anticoagulant, and as time in therapeutic range for warfarin). We also noted any strokes, transient ischemic attacks, major bleeding, or deaths as safety end points. We enrolled 922 evaluable patient encounters (Anticoagulation Choice=463, and UC=459), of which 814 (88%) had pharmacy and clinical follow‐up. We found no differences between arms in either primary adherence (78% of patients in the SDM arm filled their first prescription versus 81% in UC arm) or secondary adherence to anticoagulation (percentage days covered of the direct oral anticoagulant was 74.1% in SDM versus 71.6% in UC; time in therapeutic range for warfarin was 66.6% in SDM versus 64.4% in UC). Safety outcomes, mostly bleeds, occurred in 13% of participants in the SDM arm and 14% in the UC arm. Conclusions In this large, randomized trial comparing UC with a tool to promote SDM against UC alone, we found no significant differences between arms in primary or secondary adherence to anticoagulation or in clinical safety outcomes. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifier: clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02905032.

2022 ◽  
pp. 174749302110577
Jonathan G Best ◽  
Liz Arram ◽  
Norin Ahmed ◽  
Maryam Balogun ◽  
Kate Bennett ◽  

Rationale Atrial fibrillation causes one-fifth of ischemic strokes, with a high risk of early recurrence. Although long-term anticoagulation is highly effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, initiation after stroke is usually delayed by concerns over intracranial hemorrhage risk. Direct oral anticoagulants offer a significantly lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage than other anticoagulants, potentially allowing earlier anticoagulation and prevention of recurrence, but the safety and efficacy of this approach has not been established. Aim Optimal timing of anticoagulation after acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation (OPTIMAS) will investigate whether early treatment with a direct oral anticoagulant, within four days of stroke onset, is as effective or better than delayed initiation, 7 to 14 days from onset, in atrial fibrillation patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods and design OPTIMAS is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome adjudication. Participants with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation eligible for anticoagulation with a direct oral anticoagulant are randomized 1:1 to early or delayed initiation. As of December 2021, 88 centers in the United Kingdom have opened. Study outcomes The primary outcome is a composite of recurrent stroke (ischemic stroke or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage) and systemic arterial embolism within 90 days. Secondary outcomes include major bleeding, functional status, anticoagulant adherence, quality of life, health and social care resource use, and length of hospital stay. Sample size target A total of 3478 participants assuming event rates of 11.5% in the control arm and 8% in the intervention arm, 90% power and 5% alpha. We will follow a non-inferiority gatekeeper analysis approach with a non-inferiority margin of 2 percentage points. Discussion OPTIMAS aims to provide high-quality evidence on the safety and efficacy of early direct oral anticoagulant initiation after atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke. Trial registrations: ISRCTN: 17896007; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03759938

Maxime Delrue ◽  
Lucie Chevillard ◽  
Alain Stépanian ◽  
Alessandra Dragoni ◽  
Laurence Camoin‐Jau ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Zhihong Bian ◽  
Xia Liu ◽  
Tian Feng ◽  
Haibo Yu ◽  
Xiao Hu ◽  

Background: Recent studies have revealed that atrial fibrillation (AF) patients have a high risk of developing cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some reports suggest that the application of oral anticoagulant with an appropriate dose may have a preventive effect on AD. However, which oral anticoagulant drug is more appropriate for preventing AD and the underlying mechanism(s) is still unknown. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the treatment effect of rivaroxaban administration as well as investigate the roles of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the AD + CAA mice model. Methods: In the present study, we compared a traditional oral anticoagulant, warfarin, and a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), rivaroxaban, via long-term administration to an AD with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) mice model. Results: Rivaroxaban treatment attenuated neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, memory deficits, and amyloid-β deposition through PAR-1/PAR-2 inhibition in the AD + CAA mice model compared with warfarin and no-treatment groups. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that rivaroxaban can attenuate AD progress and can be a potential choice to prevent AD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 189-200
Sorino Claudio ◽  
Squizzato Alessandro ◽  
Inzirillo Francesco ◽  
Feller-Kopman David

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