Clinical Interventions
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
F. Duncan ◽  
C. Baskin ◽  
M. McGrath ◽  
J. F. Coker ◽  
C. Lee ◽  

Abstract Background Public mental health (PMH) aims to improve wellbeing and prevent poor mental health at the population level. It is a global challenge and a UK priority area for action. Communities play an important role in the provision of PMH interventions. However, the evidence base concerning community-based PMH interventions is limited, meaning it is challenging to compare service provision to need. Without this, the efficient and equitable provision of services is hindered. Here, we sought to map the current range of community-based interventions for improving mental health and wellbeing currently provided in England to inform priority areas for policy and service intervention. Method We adopted an established mapping exercise methodology, comparing service provision with demographic and deprivation statistics. Five local authority areas of England were selected based on differing demographics, mental health needs and wider challenging circumstances (i.e. high deprivation). Community-based interventions were identified through: 1) desk-based research 2) established professional networks 3) chain-referral sampling of individuals involved in local mental health promotion and prevention and 4) peer researchers’ insight. We included all community-based, non-clinical interventions aimed at adult residents operating between July 2019 and May 2020. Results 407 interventions were identified across the five areas addressing 16 risk/protective factors for PMH. Interventions for social isolation and loneliness were most prevalent, most commonly through social activities and/or befriending services. The most common subpopulations targeted were older adults and people from minority ethnic backgrounds. Interventions focusing on broader structural and environmental determinants were uncommon. There was some evidence of service provision being tailored to local need, though this was inconsistent, meaning some at-risk groups such as men or LGBTQ+ people from minority ethnic backgrounds were missed. Interventions were not consistently evaluated. Conclusions There was evidence of partial responsiveness to national and local prioritising. Provision was geared mainly towards addressing social and individual determinants of PMH, suggesting more integration is needed to engage wider service providers and policy-makers in PMH strategy and delivery at the community level. The lack of comprehensive evaluation of services to improve PMH needs to be urgently addressed to determine the extent of their effectiveness in communities they serve.

2021 ◽  
Mohammad Meshbahur Rahman ◽  
Zaki Farhana ◽  
Md Taj Uddin ◽  
Md. Ziaul Islam ◽  
Mohammad Hamiduzzaman

Abstract Introduction: People aged 50 years and over often show nutritional vulnerability in South-Asia including Bangladesh. Consequently, they present physical weakness and illness that escalate overtime. In Bangladesh, community-focused investigations have potentials to inform healthcare interventions, but current studies examine older adults’ nutrition status which are not all-encompassing [e.g., wetland communities]. We, therefore, assessed the malnutrition status among wetland community-dwelling older adults aged ≥50 years in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 400 older adults was conducted in the north-eastern wetland community of Bangladesh through simple random sampling. Demographic and health information were collected using a structure questionnaire and the Nestle Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form criteria was used to assess the nutrition status. Respondent’s socio-demographic and health profiles were assessed, and the Pearson’s Chi-square association test was performed to identify the associated socio-demographic and health factors of older adult’s malnutrition.Results: The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were 59.75 and 39.75 percent respectively. Malnutrition prevalence rate was higher with increasing of age and female were more malnourished than male. The age, gender, educational status, occupation and income were significantly associated with older adults’ malnutrition. The wetland community-dwelling people who are suffering sleeping disorders and poor self-rating health condition were found to be more malnourished.Conclusion: The findings confirm that the prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition are high among community-dwelling people aged ≥50 years in wetland communities. Our findings suggest the health professionals to implement public health and clinical interventions simultaneously to improve nutritional status of this cohort.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 3163
Wassim Gana ◽  
Arnaud De Luca ◽  
Camille Debacq ◽  
Fanny Poitau ◽  
Pierre Poupin ◽  

Vitamin deficiencies have a serious impact on healthy aging in older people. Many age-related disorders have a direct or indirect impact on nutrition, both in terms of nutrient assimilation and food access, which may result in vitamin deficiencies and may lead to or worsen disabilities. Frailty is characterized by reduced functional abilities, with a key role of malnutrition in its pathogenesis. Aging is associated with various changes in body composition that lead to sarcopenia. Frailty, aging, and sarcopenia all favor malnutrition, and poor nutritional status is a major cause of geriatric morbidity and mortality. In the present narrative review, we focused on vitamins with a significant risk of deficiency in high-income countries: D, C, and B (B6/B9/B12). We also focused on vitamin E as the main lipophilic antioxidant, synergistic to vitamin C. We first discuss the role and needs of these vitamins, the prevalence of deficiencies, and their causes and consequences. We then look at how these vitamins are involved in the biological pathways associated with sarcopenia and frailty. Lastly, we discuss the critical early diagnosis and management of these deficiencies and summarize potential ways of screening malnutrition. A focused nutritional approach might improve the diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies and the initiation of appropriate clinical interventions for reducing the risk of frailty. Further comprehensive research programs on nutritional interventions are needed, with a view to lowering deficiencies in older people and thus decreasing the risk of frailty and sarcopenia.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Rosa Ayesa-Arriola ◽  
Victor Ortiz-García de la Foz ◽  
Nancy Murillo-García ◽  
Javier Vázquez-Bourgon ◽  
María Juncal-Ruiz ◽  

Abstract Background Cognitive reserve (CR) has been associated with the development and prognosis of psychosis. Different proxies have been used to estimate CR among individuals. A composite score of these proxies could elucidate the role of CR at illness onset on the variability of clinical and neurocognitive outcomes. Methods Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ), years of education and premorbid adjustment were explored as proxies of CR in a large sample (N = 424) of first-episode psychosis (FEP) non-affective patients. Clusters of patients were identified and compared based on premorbid, clinical and neurocognitive variables at baseline. Additionally, the clusters were compared at 3-year (N = 362) and 10-year (N = 150) follow-ups. Results The FEP patients were grouped into five CR clusters: C1 (low premorbid IQ, low education and poor premorbid) 14%; C2 (low premorbid IQ, low education and good premorbid adjustment) 29%; C3 (normal premorbid IQ, low education and poor premorbid adjustment) 17%; C4 (normal premorbid IQ, medium education and good premorbid adjustment) 25%; and C5 (normal premorbid IQ, higher education and good premorbid adjustment) 15%. In general, positive and negative symptoms were more severe in the FEP patients with the lowest CR at baseline and follow-up assessments, while those with high CR presented and maintained higher levels of cognitive functioning. Conclusions CR could be considered a key factor at illness onset and a moderator of outcomes in FEP patients. A high CR could function as a protective factor against cognitive impairment and severe symptomatology. Clinical interventions focused on increasing CR and documenting long-term benefits are interesting and desirable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (9) ◽  
pp. e1009285
Eric D. Musselman ◽  
Jake E. Cariello ◽  
Warren M. Grill ◽  
Nicole A. Pelot

Electrical stimulation and block of peripheral nerves hold great promise for treatment of a range of disease and disorders, but promising results from preclinical studies often fail to translate to successful clinical therapies. Differences in neural anatomy across species require different electrodes and stimulation parameters to achieve equivalent nerve responses, and accounting for the consequences of these factors is difficult. We describe the implementation, validation, and application of a standardized, modular, and scalable computational modeling pipeline for biophysical simulations of electrical activation and block of nerve fibers within peripheral nerves. The ASCENT (Automated Simulations to Characterize Electrical Nerve Thresholds) pipeline provides a suite of built-in capabilities for user control over the entire workflow, including libraries for parts to assemble electrodes, electrical properties of biological materials, previously published fiber models, and common stimulation waveforms. We validated the accuracy of ASCENT calculations, verified usability in beta release, and provide several compelling examples of ASCENT-implemented models. ASCENT will enable the reproducibility of simulation data, and it will be used as a component of integrated simulations with other models (e.g., organ system models), to interpret experimental results, and to design experimental and clinical interventions for the advancement of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies.

2021 ◽  
Katie A McLaughlin ◽  
Laurel Joy Gabard-Durnam

Despite the clear importance of a developmental perspective for understanding the emergence of psychopathology across the life-course, such a perspective has yet to be integrated into the RDoC model. In this paper, we articulate a framework that incorporates developmentally-specific learning mechanisms that reflect experience-driven plasticity as additional units of analysis in the existing RDoC matrix. These include both experience-expectant learning mechanisms that occur during sensitive periods of development and experience-dependent learning mechanisms that may exhibit substantial variation across development. Incorporating these learning mechanisms allows for clear integration not only of development but also environmental experience into the RDoC model. We demonstrate how individual differences in environmental experiences—such as early-life adversity—can be leveraged to identify experience-driven plasticity patterns across development and apply this framework to consider how environmental experience shapes key biobehavioral processes that comprise the RDoC model. This framework provides a structure for understanding how affective, cognitive, social, and neurobiological processes are shaped by experience across development and ultimately contribute to the emergence of psychopathology. We demonstrate how incorporating an experience-driven plasticity framework is critical for understanding the development of many processes subsumed within the RDoC model, which will contribute to greater understanding of developmental variation in the etiology of psychopathology and can be leveraged to identify potential windows of heightened developmental plasticity when clinical interventions might be maximally efficacious.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 216-222
Abigail Reay ◽  
Avinash Aujayeb ◽  
Catherine Dotchin ◽  
Ellen Tullo ◽  
John Steer ◽  

Introduction: Research into the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues at an unprecedented pace. Many physical long-term symptoms of COVID-19 have been reported and include headache, fatigue, muscle pain and breathlessness, etc. Psychological effects are not dissimilar to survivors of SARS. There is limited qualitative research exploring the mental health impacts and experiences of hospitalized COVID-19 inpatients. Methods: A prospective qualitative study is planned to explore patient experiences post hospital discharge following a diagnosis of COVID-19. The research aims to gain an understanding of how COVID-19 affects quality of life (QoL) and functional abilities. Patients discharged from the hospital will be invited to take part in semi-structured interviews discussing their experiences of hospitalization and the impact of COVID-19 on their QoL. Interviews will be conducted at three and six months following discharge from hospital. This study will provide important qualitative insight and may inform clinical interventions and commissioning decisions. Trial registration: The study has Research Ethics Committee (REC) and Health Research Authority (HRA) approvals obtained from Health and Care Research Wales (HCRW) [IRAS project ID 293196].

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
pp. 285-291
Graeme J Duke ◽  
Frank Shann ◽  
Cameron I Knott ◽  
Felix Oberender ◽  

BACKGROUND: The national hospital-acquired complications (HAC) system has been promoted as a method to identify health care errors that may be mitigated by clinical interventions. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the rate of HAC in multiday stay adults admitted to major hospitals. DESIGN: Retrospective observational analysis of 5-year (July 2014 – June 2019) administrative dataset abstracted from medical records. SETTING: All 47 hospitals with on-site intensive care units (ICUs) in the State of Victoria. PARTICIPANTS: All adults (aged ≥ 18 years) stratified into planned or unplanned, surgical or medical, ICU or other ward, and by hospital peer group (tertiary referral, metropolitan, regional). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HAC rates in ICU compared with ward, and mixed-effects regression estimates of the association between HAC and i) risk of clinical deterioration, and ii) admission hospital site (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.3). RESULTS: 211 120 adult ICU separations with mean hospital mortality of 7.3% (95% CI, 7.2–7.4%) reported 110 132 (42.6%) HAC events (commonly, delirium, infection, arrhythmia and respiratory failure) in 62 945 records (29.8%). Higher HAC rates were reported in elective (cardiac [50.3%] and non-cardiac [40.6%]) surgical subgroups compared with emergency medical subgroup (23.9%), and in tertiary (35.4%) compared with non-tertiary (22.7%) hospitals. HAC was strongly associated with on-admission patient characteristics (P < 0.001), but was weakly associated with hospital site (ICC, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.05–0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients have a high burden of HAC events, which appear to be associated with patient admission characteristics. HAC may an indicator of hospital admission complexity rather than hospital-acquired complications.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Arnon Dias Jurberg ◽  
Beatriz Chaves ◽  
Lia Gonçalves Pinho ◽  
João Hermínio Martins da Silva ◽  
Wilson Savino ◽  

The complex steps leading to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and the progress to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders have opened up new research and intervention avenues. This review focuses on the therapeutic targeting of the VLA-4 integrin to discuss the clear-cut effect on immune cell trafficking into brain tissues. Besides, we explore the possibility that blocking VLA-4 may have a relevant impact on nonmigratory activities of immune cells, such as antigen presentation and T-cell differentiation, during the neuroinflammatory process. Lastly, the recent refinement of computational techniques is highlighted as a way to increase specificity and to reduce the detrimental side effects of VLA-4 immunotherapies aiming at developing better clinical interventions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 103985622110373
Anton N Isaacs

Objective: To propose a model where care coordination can form part of recovery oriented care when it is included as a collaborative element of services for persons with severe mental illness. Conclusion: A recovery-oriented service requires more than clinical interventions. It also needs to address social determinants and be individualised or person centred. Multiple health and community services need to be involved. A care coordination model is capable of addressing multiple needs. It gives the client the first and foremost voice. It facilitates intersectoral collaboration, reduces the burden on clinical mental health services and is supported by mental health and community service personnel.

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