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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. M. Ali ◽  
M. T. Baig ◽  
A. Huma ◽  
S. Ibrahim ◽  
S. A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanhui Tan ◽  
Minhong Ke ◽  
Zhichao Li ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Jiehuang Zheng ◽  
...  

It is a viable strategy to inhibit osteoclast differentiation for the treatment of osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastases. Here we assessed the effects of insulicolide A, a natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoid derived from marine fungus, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and its protective effects on LPS-induced osteolysis mice model in vivo. The results demonstrated that insulicolide A inhibited osteoclastogenesis from 1 μM in vitro. Insulicolide A could prevent c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation and attenuate the expression levels of osteoclast-related genes and DC-STAMP during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis but have no effects on NF-κB and MAPKs. Insulicolide A can also protect the mice from LPS-induced osteolysis. Our research provides the first evidence that insulicolide A may inhibit osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and indicates that it may have potential for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yingying Chen ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Lijie Zeng ◽  
Liyan Li ◽  
Dan Lu ◽  
...  

AbstractParoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disease caused by PIG-A mutation of hematopoietic stem cells. At present, there is no suitable PNH animal model for basic research, therefore, it is urgent to establish a stable animal model. We constructed a Pig-a conditional knock-out mice model by ES targeting technique and Vav-iCre. The expressions of GPI and GPI-AP were almost completely absent in CKO homozygote mice, and the proportion of the deficiency remained stable from birth. In CKO heterozygote mice, the proportion of the deficiency of GPI and GPI-AP was partially absent and decreased gradually from birth until it reached a stable level at 3 months after birth and remained there for life. Compared with normal C57BL/6N mice and Flox mice, pancytopenia was found in CKO homozygous mice, and leukopenia and anemia were found in CKO heterozygotes mice. Meanwhile, in CKO mice, the serum LDH, TBIL, IBIL, complement C5b-9 levels were increased, and the concentration of plasma FHb was increased. Hemosiderin granulosa cells can be seen more easily in the spleens of CKO mice. What’s more, CKO mice had stable transcription characteristics. In conclusion, our mouse model has stable GPI-deficient and mild hemolysis, which may be an ideal in vivo experimental model for PNH.


Author(s):  
Heba Bassiony ◽  
Akmal A. El-Ghor ◽  
Taher A. Salaheldin ◽  
Salwa Sabet ◽  
Mona M. Mohamed

AbstractNanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on cellular and molecular level. The present study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes and DNA damage effects of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on female albino mice model with Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC). Magnetite nanoparticles coated with L-ascorbic acid (size ~ 25.0 nm) were synthesized and characterized. Mice were treated with MNPs day by day, intraperitoneally (IP), intramuscularly (IM), or intratumorally (IT). Autopsy samples were taken from the solid tumor, thigh muscle, liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and brain for assessment of iron content, histopathological examination, and genotoxicity using comet assay. The liver, spleen, lung, and heart had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IP. On the other hand, tumor, muscles, and the liver had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IT. MNPs induced a significant DNA damage in IT treated ESC. While a significant DNA damage was detected in the liver of the IP treated group, but no significant DNA damage could be detected in the brain. Histopathological findings in ESC revealed a marked tumor necrosis, 50% in group injected IT but 40% in group injected IP and 20% only in untreated tumors. Other findings include inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, and congestion of blood vessels of different organs of treated groups in addition to appearance of metastatic cancer cells in the liver of non-treated tumor group. MNPs could have an antitumor effect but it is recommended to be injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues and reduce its adverse effects on healthy tissues.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Leyi Zhang ◽  
Chenglong Lu ◽  
Li Kang ◽  
Yingji Li ◽  
Wenjing Tang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Astrocytic activation might play a significant role in the central sensitization of chronic migraine (CM). However, the temporal characteristics of the astrocytic activation in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and the molecular mechanism under the process remain not fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the duration and levels change of astrocytic activation and to explore the correlation between astrocytic activation and the levels change of cytokines release. Methods We used a mice model induced by recurrent dural infusion of inflammatory soup (IS). The variation with time of IS-induced mechanical thresholds in the periorbital and hind paw plantar regions were evaluated using the von Frey filaments test. We detected the expression profile of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the TNC through immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay. We also investigated the variation with time of the transcriptional levels of GFAP and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) through RNAscope in situ hybridization analysis. Then, we detected the variation with time of cytokines levels in the TNC tissue extraction and serum, including c-c motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), c-c motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), c-c motif chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7), c-c motif chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Results Recurrent IS infusion resulted in cutaneous allodynia in both the periorbital region and hind paw plantar, ranging from 5 d (after the second IS infusion) to 47 d (28 d after the last infusion) and 5 d to 26 d (7 d after the last infusion), respectively. The protein levels of GFAP and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of GFAP and Iba1 significantly increased and sustained from 20 d to 47 d (1 d to 28 d after the last infusion), which was associated with the temporal characteristics of astrocytic activation in the TNC. The CCL7 levels in the TNC decreased from 20 d to 47 d. But the CCL7 levels in serum only decreased on 20 d (1 d after the last infusion). The CCL12 levels in the TNC decreased on 22 d (3 d after the last infusion) and 33 d (14 d after the last infusion). In serum, the CCL12 levels only decreased on 22 d. The IL-10 levels in the TNC increased on 20 d. Conclusions Our results indicate that the astrocytic activation generated and sustained in the IS-induced mice model from 1 d to 28 d after the last infusion and may contribute to the pathology through modulating CCL7, CCL12, and IL-10 release.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carlos Minoru Omura ◽  
Daniela Dero Lüdtke ◽  
Verônica Vargas Horewicz ◽  
Paula Franson Fernandes ◽  
Taynah de Oliveira Galassi ◽  
...  

ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization (AJM) on mechanical hyperalgesia and peripheral and central inflammatory biomarkers after intraplantar (i.pl.) Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation.MethodsMale Swiss mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 7): Saline/Sham, CFA/Sham, and CFA/AJM. Five AJM sessions were carried out at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after CFA injection. von Frey test was used to assess mechanical hyperalgesia. Tissues from paw skin, paw muscle and spinal cord were collected to measure pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1) by ELISA. The macrophage phenotype at the inflammation site was evaluated by Western blotting assay using the Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS 2) and Arginase-1 immunocontent to identify M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively.ResultsOur results confirm a consistent analgesic effect of AJM following the second treatment session. AJM did not change cytokines levels at the inflammatory site, although it promoted a reduction in M2 macrophages. Also, there was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord.ConclusionTaken together, the results confirm the anti-hyperalgesic effect of AJM and suggest a central neuroimmunomodulatory effect in a model of persistent inflammation targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leena Sapra ◽  
Niti Shokeen ◽  
Konica Gupta ◽  
Chaman Saini ◽  
Asha Bhardwaj ◽  
...  

Discoveries in the last few years have emphasized the existence of an enormous breadth of communication between osteo-immune system. These discoveries fuel novel approaches for the treatment of several bone-pathologies including osteoporosis, an inflammatory bone anomaly affecting more than 500 million people globally. Bifidobacterium longum (BL) is preferred probiotic of choice due to its varied immunomodulatory potential in alleviating various inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the effect of BL in ovariectomy (ovx)-induced post-menopausal osteoporotic mice model. Our in vitro findings reveal that BL suppresses the differentiation and functional activity of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in both mouse bone marrow cells and human PBMCs. Our in vivo data clearly establish that BL exhibits osteoprotective potential via modulating the immunoporotic Breg-Treg-Th17 cell-axis. Furthermore, micro-CT and bone mechanical strength data support that BL supplementation significantly enhanced bone mass and strength, and improved microarchitecture in ovx mice. Remarkably, alteration in frequencies of CD19+CD1dhiCD5+ Bregs, CD4+Foxp3+IL-10+ Tregs, and CD4+Rorgt+IL-17+ Th17 immune cells in distinct lymphoid organs along with serum-cytokine data (enhanced anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines IFN-g; and IL-10 and reduced osteoclastogenic-cytokines IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-a) strongly support the immunomodulatory potential of BL. Altogether our findings establish a novel osteo-protective and immunoporotic potential of BL in augmenting bone health under osteoporotic conditions.


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