optimal timing
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

2022 ◽  
pp. 174749302110577
Jonathan G Best ◽  
Liz Arram ◽  
Norin Ahmed ◽  
Maryam Balogun ◽  
Kate Bennett ◽  

Rationale Atrial fibrillation causes one-fifth of ischemic strokes, with a high risk of early recurrence. Although long-term anticoagulation is highly effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, initiation after stroke is usually delayed by concerns over intracranial hemorrhage risk. Direct oral anticoagulants offer a significantly lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage than other anticoagulants, potentially allowing earlier anticoagulation and prevention of recurrence, but the safety and efficacy of this approach has not been established. Aim Optimal timing of anticoagulation after acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation (OPTIMAS) will investigate whether early treatment with a direct oral anticoagulant, within four days of stroke onset, is as effective or better than delayed initiation, 7 to 14 days from onset, in atrial fibrillation patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods and design OPTIMAS is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome adjudication. Participants with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation eligible for anticoagulation with a direct oral anticoagulant are randomized 1:1 to early or delayed initiation. As of December 2021, 88 centers in the United Kingdom have opened. Study outcomes The primary outcome is a composite of recurrent stroke (ischemic stroke or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage) and systemic arterial embolism within 90 days. Secondary outcomes include major bleeding, functional status, anticoagulant adherence, quality of life, health and social care resource use, and length of hospital stay. Sample size target A total of 3478 participants assuming event rates of 11.5% in the control arm and 8% in the intervention arm, 90% power and 5% alpha. We will follow a non-inferiority gatekeeper analysis approach with a non-inferiority margin of 2 percentage points. Discussion OPTIMAS aims to provide high-quality evidence on the safety and efficacy of early direct oral anticoagulant initiation after atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke. Trial registrations: ISRCTN: 17896007; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03759938

2022 ◽  
pp. 29-32
Ш.Р. Арипова ◽  
С.И. Дусмуратова

Изучение кабачка (Cucurbita pepo var. giraumontia) в природно-климатических условиях Узбекистана и совершенствование технологии выращивания семенных плодов – важное направление селекционной работы по обогащению сортимента овощных культур и организации семеноводства этой культуры. Цель исследований: установить оптимальные сроки высева семян и посадки рассады перспективной линии короткоплетистой формы кабачка LZ-2513 при весеннем сроке выращивания на семенные цели. Исследования проводили в 2016 и 2019 годах на экспериментальном участке Научно-исследовательского института овощебахчевых культур и картофеля Республики Узбекистан (Ташкентский район Ташкентской области). Климат региона схож с условиями большинства овощеводческих хозяйств, расположенных в равнинной центральной части Узбекистана. Почвы опытного участка – типичные суглинки, окультуренные, влагоемкие, глубина залегания грунтовых вод – более 6–7 м, количество гумуса в почве – 0,641–0,943%, азота – 0,072–0,121%, фосфора – 0,130–0,171% и калия – 1,627–2,206%. Погодные условия 2016 и 2019 годов были благоприятными для роста и развития кабачка, за исключением засушливого июля и августа, в течение которых недостаток влаги компенсировали поливами. Испытаны четыре весенних срока посева и посадки рассады (в 2016 году – 3 апреля, 12 апреля, 20 апреля и 1 мая; в 2019 году – 1 апреля, 10 апреля, 21 апреля и 30 апреля). Делянки двухрядковые, длиной 10 м, схема размещения (140+70)/2×50 см. Площадь учетной делянки 21,0 м2. На каждой делянке размещались по 40 растений, повторность опыта четырехкратная. Установлено, что в условиях Ташкентской области Узбекистана наибольший выход семян из плодов у линии LZ-2513 был при выращивании кабачка рассадным способом в первой декаде апреля (в начале I и II декады апреля), а при безрассадной культуре – при посеве семян в начале апреля, что связано с наиболее благоприятными температурными условиями для культуры кабачка. The study of squash (Cucurbita pepo var. giraumontia) in the natural and climatic conditions of Uzbekistan and the improvement of the technology of growing seed fruits is an important direction of breeding work is to enrich the assortment of vegetable crops and the organization of seed production of this crop. The purpose of the research: to establish the optimal timing of sowing seeds and planting seedlings of a promising line of short-leafed squash LZ-2513 at the spring period of cultivation for seed purposes. The research was carried out in 2016 and 2019 at the experimental site of the Scientific Research Institute of Vegetable and melon crops and Potato of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Tashkent district of the Tashkent region). The climate of the region is similar to the conditions of most vegetable farms located in the flat central part of Uzbekistan. The soils of the experimental site are typical loams, cultivated, moisture-intensive, the depth of groundwater is more than 6–7 meters, the amount of humus in the soil is 0.641–0.943%, nitrogen – 0.072–0.121%, phosphorus – 0.130–0.171% and potassium – 1.627–2.206%. Weather conditions in 2016 and 2019 were favorable for the growth and development of squash, with the exception of dry July and August, during which the lack of moisture was compensated by watering. 4 spring sowing and planting dates have been tested (in 2016 – April 3, April 12, April 20 and May 1; in 2019 – April 1, April 10, April 21 and April 30). Two-row plots, 10 m long, layout (140+70)/2×50 cm. The area of the accounting plot is 21.0 m2. 40 plants were placed on each plot, the repetition of the experiment was fourfold. It was found that in the conditions of the Tashkent region of Uzbekistan, the highest yield of seeds from fruits of the LZ-2513 line was established when squash was grown by seedling method in the first decade of April (at the beginning of the first and second decade of April), and with seedless culture – when sowing seeds in early April, which is associated with the most favorable temperature conditions for squash culture.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Joo Hye Song ◽  
Ji Eun Kim ◽  
Hwe Hoon Chung ◽  
Sung Noh Hong ◽  
Heejung Kim ◽  

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has become the noninvasive diagnostic standard in the investigation of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), with a high positive and negative predictive value. However, the diagnostic yield of the VCE is thought to depend on when it was performed. We evaluate the optimal timing performing VCE relative to overt OGIB to improve the diagnostic yield. A total 271 patients had admitted and underwent VCE for overt OGIB between 2007 and 2016 in Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of VCE for overt OGIB with respect to timing of the intervention, diagnostic yield was analyzed according to the times after latest bleeding. The finding of VCE was classified into P0 or P1 (no potential for bleeding or uncertain hemorrhagic potential) and P2 (high potential for bleeding, such as active bleeding, typical angiodysplasia, large ulcerations or tumors). The P2 lesion was found in 106 patients and diagnostic yield of was 39.1% for overt OGIB. Diagnostic yield of VCE to detect P2 lesion was higher when it is performed closer to the time of latest bleeding (timing of VCE between the VCE and latest bleeding: <24 h, 43/63 (68.3%); 1 days, 16/43 (34.9%); 2 days, 18/52 (34.6%); 3 days, 13/43 (30.2%); 4 days, 7/28 (25.0%); 5–7 days, 6/24 (25.0%), and ≥8 days, 4/18 (22.2%); ptrend <0.001). The interval between the VCE and latest bleeding were categorized into <24 h (n = 63), 1–2 days (n = 95), 3–7 days (n = 95) and ≥8 days (n = 18). Multivariable analyses showed the odds ratio for P2 lesion detection was 4.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.47–16.89) in <24 h group, compared with ≥8 days group (p < 0.010). The overall re-bleeding rate for those with P2 lesion was higher than for those with P0 or P1 lesion at the end of mean follow up of 2.5 years. The proportion of patients who underwent therapeutic intervention including surgery, endoscopic intervention and embolization was higher when VCE is performed closer to the time of latest bleeding (p = 0.010). Early deployment of VCE within 24 h of the latest GI bleeding results in a higher diagnostic yield for patients with overt OGIB and consequently resulted in a higher therapeutic intervention rate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
Mustafa Al-Zoughool ◽  
Tamer Oraby ◽  
Harri Vainio ◽  
Janvier Gasana ◽  
Joseph Longenecker ◽  

Abstract Background Kuwait had its first COVID-19 in late February, and until October 6, 2020 it recorded 108,268 cases and 632 deaths. Despite implementing one of the strictest control measures-including a three-week complete lockdown, there was no sign of a declining epidemic curve. The objective of the current analyses is to determine, hypothetically, the optimal timing and duration of a full lockdown in Kuwait that would result in controlling new infections and lead to a substantial reduction in case hospitalizations. Methods The analysis was conducted using a stochastic Continuous-Time Markov Chain (CTMC), eight state model that depicts the disease transmission and spread of SARS-CoV 2. Transmission of infection occurs between individuals through social contacts at home, in schools, at work, and during other communal activities. Results The model shows that a lockdown 10 days before the epidemic peak for 90 days is optimal but a more realistic duration of 45 days can achieve about a 45% reduction in both new infections and case hospitalizations. Conclusions In the view of the forthcoming waves of the COVID19 pandemic anticipated in Kuwait using a correctly-timed and sufficiently long lockdown represents a workable management strategy that encompasses the most stringent form of social distancing with the ability to significantly reduce transmissions and hospitalizations.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque ◽  
Danish J. Malik ◽  
Pablo Catalá-Gregori ◽  
Clara Marin ◽  
Sandra Sevilla-Navarro

Bacteriophage therapy is being considered as a promising tool to control Salmonella in poultry. Nevertheless, changes in gastrointestinal tract environmental conditions throughout the production cycle could compromise the efficacy of phages administered orally. The main objectives of this study were to assess the optimal timing of the phage administration over a 42-day production cycle and to compare microencapsulated and non-encapsulated phages and the spatial and temporal dynamics of the phage delivery along the gastrointestinal tract. Phage FGS011 was encapsulated in the pH-responsive polymer Eudragit® L100 using the process of spray drying. At different weeks of the chicken rearing period, 15 broilers were divided into three groups. Over a period of 24 h, group 1 received non-encapsulated phages (delivered through drinking water), group 2 received microencapsulated phages (incorporated in animal feed), and group 3 did not receive any phages. Microencapsulation was shown to enable efficient delivery of the bacteriophages to the animal gut and cecum throughout the animal rearing period. During the six weeks of application, the crop displayed the highest phage concentration for both phage delivery methods. The L100 based encapsulation offered significant protection to the phages from the harsh environmental conditions in the PV-Gizzard (not seen with phages administered in drinking water) which may help in the delivery of high phage doses to the cecum. Future Salmonella challenge studies are necessary to demonstrate the benefits of microencapsulation of phages using L100 formulation on phage therapy in field studies during the rearing period.

Sven Zhen Cian Tan ◽  
Sidhant Singh ◽  
Joaquin Alfonso Palanca ◽  
Natasha Austin J ◽  
Matti Jubouri ◽  

Background The use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for the management of uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD) remains controversial. There is a lack of consensus over whether pre-emptive TEVAR should be carried out in patients with un-TBAD at risk of progression to complicated TBAD. We present a review of current evidence and seek to suggest criteria where endovascular intervention in un-TBAD may prove beneficial relative to pharmacotherapy alone. Methods and Materials PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched using terms including: type B aortic dissection, risk factors, medical therapy, TEVAR, false lumen expansion, and mortality. Papers were selected based on title and abstract. Results Optimal medical therapy remains the mainstay treatment for patients with un-TBAD, however patients with un-TBAD present with varying degrees of disease progression risk. Factors such as age, aortic morphology, history of connective tissue disorders, false lumen thrombosis, and aortic branch involvement may potentiate progression from un-TBAD to complicated TBAD. Short- and long-term outcomes associated with TEVAR for TBAD remain promising. Conclusion Pre-emptive TEVAR may be beneficial in patients with un-TBAD presenting with the above factors, however further prospective research into the optimal timing for TEVAR in un-TBAD is required.

Sarah Leyde ◽  
Leslie Suen ◽  
Lisa Pratt ◽  
Triveni DeFries

AbstractBuprenorphine is increasingly used to treat pain in patients with sickle cell disease but optimal timing and approach for transitioning patients from full agonist opioids to buprenorphine is unknown. We present the case of a 22-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and acute on chronic pain who transitioned from high-dose oxycodone to buprenorphine/naloxone during a hospital stay for vaso-occlusive episode. Utilizing a microdosing approach to minimize pain and withdrawal, buprenorphine/naloxone was gradually uptitrated while she received full agonist opioids. During the transition, she experienced some withdrawal in the setting of swallowed buprenorphine/naloxone tablets, which were intended to be dosed sublingually. Nevertheless, the transition was tolerable to the patient and her pain and function significantly improved with buprenorphine treatment. This case also highlights the challenges and unique considerations that arise when providing care for the hospitalized patient who is also incarcerated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S482-S483
Samsiya Ona ◽  
Stephanie Purisch ◽  
Anne E. Reed-Weston ◽  
Shai Bejerano ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document