advantages and disadvantages
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Rafael Melendreras Ruiz ◽  
Ma Teresa Marín Torres ◽  
Paloma Sánchez Allegue

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) scanning has become the main tool for recording, documenting, and preserving cultural heritage in the long term. It has become the “document” most in demand today by historians, curators, and art restorers to carry out their work based on a “digital twin,” that is, a totally reliable and accurate model of the object in question. Thanks to 3D scanning, we can preserve reliable models in digital format of the real state of our heritage, some of which are currently destroyed. The first step is to digitize our heritage with the highest possible quality and precision. To do this, it will be necessary to identify the most appropriate technique. In this article, we will show some of the main digitization techniques currently used in sculpture heritage and the workflows associated with them to obtain high-quality models. Finally, a complete comparative analysis will be made to show their main advantages and disadvantages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Lingxi Xie ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Kaifeng Bi ◽  
Longhui Wei ◽  
Yuhui Xu ◽  

Neural architecture search (NAS) has attracted increasing attention. In recent years, individual search methods have been replaced by weight-sharing search methods for higher search efficiency, but the latter methods often suffer lower instability. This article provides a literature review on these methods and owes this issue to the optimization gap . From this perspective, we summarize existing approaches into several categories according to their efforts in bridging the gap, and we analyze both advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies. Finally, we share our opinions on the future directions of NAS and AutoML. Due to the expertise of the authors, this article mainly focuses on the application of NAS to computer vision problems.

Anshuja Anand Meshram

Abstract: Deep Learning Applications are being applied in various domains in recent years. Training a deep learning model is a very time consuming task. But, many open source frameworks are available to simplify this task. In this review paper we have discussed the features of some popular open source software tools available for deep learning along with their advantages and disadvantages. Software tools discussed in this paper are Tensorflow, Keras, Pytorch, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (CNTK). Keywords: Deep Learning, Frameworks, Open Source, Tensorflow, Pytorch, Keras, CNTK

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-011
Yete Pélagie ◽  
Togbe FC Alexis ◽  
Yovo Franck ◽  
Suanon Fidèle ◽  
Sidohounde Assou ◽  

Natural minerals are a powerful tool in politics when some have a major role in production. Its depletion is now a hot topic worldwide. Thus, the safety of the environment, natural surface water, groundwater and the protection of soils from chronic contamination by metallic and inorganic elements is a global concern. Indeed, industrialization and development have led to the generation of huge and varied amounts of waste, including electronic waste (e-waste), which is released into the environment. Although e-waste is classified as hazardous, most of it is not recycled and developed countries with strict environmental protection legislation send most of their e-waste to developing countries where regulations are lax. These electronic devices and components after being used are simply dumped into the environment due to lack of treatment and recycling strategy. As a result, they become a threat to the environment, ecosystems and humans. African countries are among the most vulnerable nations. But they are unfortunately ignored and underestimated. To date, there is no e-waste recycling unit (factory) in most African countries and mainly in the Republic of Benin. In response to this challenge, this study explored the different techniques used for the recycling of waste electrical/electronic equipment in order to develop a new environmentally friendly approach in future work, for the extraction and recycling of the usual and valuable metallic elements contained in electronic waste (printed circuit boards) released into the environment. For this purpose, a bibliographic research was carried out from 20 April to 16 October 2021. The results obtained allowed us to identify the advantages and disadvantages of existing recycling methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Alexander Challinor ◽  
Jonathon Whyler

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and critically evaluate UK psychiatry national recruitment process for 2021, which was re-structured following the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, this paper aims to review the empirical evidence of the selection methodologies in psychiatry recruitment. Design/methodology/approach The UK national psychiatry recruitment process is discussed, with a focus on the changes made to recruitment in 2021. The advantages and disadvantages of different selection methodologies are explored, with an emphasis on evaluating the validity, acceptability and reliability of different recruitment selection methodologies. The potential impact of the changes to psychiatry recruitment are explored. Findings The decision of the National Recruitment Office to remove certain selection methods for recruitment in 2021 may have limited their ability to choose the best candidate for the training place and be fair to the applicant. Overall, there is a lack of research into the validity of the selection methods used in psychiatry recruitment. A framework for outcome criteria relevant to psychiatry recruitment should be developed, which would allow research into selection methods and guide the NRO to examine the evidence base effectively. Originality/value This paper examined the recruitment methods used to choose doctors for psychiatry training in the UK, demonstrating that the empirical evidence base for psychiatry recruitment is limited. This paper can contribute to our understanding of selection methodologies used in psychiatry recruitment and highlights the value of different recruitment approaches for choosing the best psychiatrists of the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-80
Anshu Sharma ◽  
Shama Bhandari ◽  
Dhundi Raj Paudel

Introduction: Tonsillectomy is frequently performed surgical procedure. There are several different methods with varied advantages and disadvantages. In spite of the different techniques available there is no consensus and definite evidence for best method. The most commonly performed are conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare time required for the completion of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative blood loss along with post operative pain between conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods. Methods: This comparative study was conducted from August 2019 to March 2021 in total of 30 patients planned for tonsillectomy in department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nepalgunj Medical College Teaching Hospital.In every patient right side tonsillectomy was done with conventional dissection method and left side tonsillectomy was done with bipolar electrocauterization method. Results: The mean age was 27.2±13.08 years. The mean duration of surgery was 16.53 ± 2.43 min and 11.10 ± 1.93 min in conventional dissection method and bipolar electrocauterization method respectively. The difference was statistically significant. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in bipolar electrocauterization method with mean intraoperative blood loss of 19 ±4.62 ml in bipolar electrocauterization group and 81.83 ±36.54 ml in conventional dissection method. The pain intensity was statistically similar in both methods at all-time intervals post operatively. Conclusion: In tonsillectomy, bipolar electrocauterization method has advantage over conventional dissection method in regards to reduced surgical time and intra operative blood loss, without any significant difference in post-operative pain intensity and post-operative hemorrhage.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 613
Li Wu ◽  
Jiqun Zhang ◽  
Deli Jia ◽  
Shuoliang Wang ◽  
Yiqun Yan

Block M of the Ordos Basin is a typical low-permeability tight sandstone gas accumulation. To develop these reservoirs, various horizontal well fracturing technologies, such as hydra-jet fracturing, open-hole packer multistage fracturing, and perf-and-plug multistage fracturing, have been implemented in practice, showing greatly varying performance. In this paper, six fracturing technologies adopted in Block M are reviewed in terms of principle, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages, and their field application effects are compared from the technical and economic perspectives. Furthermore, the main factors affecting the productivity of fractured horizontal wells are determined using the entropy method, the causes for the difference in application effects of the fracturing technologies are analyzed, and a comprehensive productivity impact index (CPII) in good correlation with the single-well production of fractured horizontal wells is constructed. This article provides a simple and applicable method for predicting the performance of multi-frac horizontal wells that takes multiple factors into account. The results can be used to select completion methods and optimize fracturing parameters in similar reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 105381512110695
Mackenzie K. Martin ◽  
Patricia A. Snyder ◽  
Brian Reichow ◽  
Crystal D. Bishop

The purpose of this study was to examine the comparability of counts of embedded instruction learning trials when different methods of viewing and recording direct behavioral observations were used. In 13 classrooms, while videotaping embedded instruction implementation for a larger randomized controlled efficacy trial was occurring, teachers’ implementation of trials was coded in situ using pencil-and-paper methods. Videos were later coded using computer-assisted methods. Dependent-samples t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and additional score agreement calculations were conducted. Statistically significant differences were found in the estimates of trial frequency. Correlational analyses showed positive and strong relationships between the coding methods. Coding agreement was higher across the entire observation versus during 10-min continuous event blocks. In situ coding took significantly less time than video coding. Results provide empirical evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of common viewing and recording methods for quantifying behavior as part of systematic observation systems.

Shruti Sunil Ajankar ◽  
Aditi Rajesh Nimodiya

Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most important technologies in the world today. In the future, intelligent machines will replace or enhance human capabilities in many areas. Artificial Intelligence is impacting the future of virtually every industry and every human being. AI has acted as the main driver of emerging technologies like big data, robotics, and IoT, and it will continue to act as a technological innovator for the foreseeable future. AI is simply the study of how to make computer do things which at the moment people do the better. There are many ways to define AI, but one simple definition is “intelligence demonstrated by machines”. Primary goal of AI is to improve computer behaviour so that it can be called intelligent. AI is ubiquitous and is not only limited to computer science but has evolved to include other areas like health, security, education, music, art, and business application. This paper gives an overview of how the AI actually works, its scopes , the different applications of AI, its advantages and disadvantages and many more topics which will give a clear understanding inspite of the boundlessness of AI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Kavita Singh ◽  
Qingfeng Li ◽  
Karar Zunaid Ahsan ◽  
Sian Curtis ◽  
William Weiss

Abstract Background Many low- and middle-income countries cannot measure maternal mortality to monitor progress against global and country-specific targets. While the ultimate goal for these countries is to have complete civil registrations systems, other interim strategies are needed to provide timely estimates of maternal mortality. Objective The objective is to inform on potential options for measuring maternal mortality. Methods This paper uses a case study approach to compare methodologies and estimates of pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRMR)/maternal mortality ratio (MMR) obtained from four different data sources from similar time periods in Bangladesh, Mozambique, and Bolivia—national population census; post-census mortality survey; household sample survey; and sample vital registration system (SVRS). Results For Bangladesh, PRMR from the 2011 census falls closely in line with the 2010 household survey and SVRS estimates, while SVRS’ MMR estimates are closer to the PRMR estimates obtained from the household survey. Mozambique's PRMR from household survey method is comparable and shows an upward trend between 1994 and 2011, whereas the post-census mortality survey estimated a higher MMR for 2007. Bolivia's DHS and post-census mortality survey also estimated comparable MMR during 1998–2003. Conclusions Overall all these data sources presented in this paper have provided valuable information on maternal mortality in Bangladesh, Mozambique, and Bolivia. It also outlines recommendations to estimate maternal mortality based on the advantages and disadvantages of several approaches. Contribution Recommendations in this paper can help health administrators and policy planners in prioritizing investment for collecting reliable and contemporaneous estimates of maternal mortality while progressing toward a complete civil registration system.

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