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Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (15) ◽  
pp. 5033
Author(s):  
Honghai Wu ◽  
Yizheng Fan ◽  
Yingda Wang ◽  
Huahong Ma ◽  
Ling Xing

With the explosive growth of smart devices and mobile applications, mobile core networks face the challenge of exponential growth in traffic and computing demand. Edge caching is one of the most promising solutions to the problem. The main purpose of edge caching is to place popular content that users need at the edge of the network, borrow free space to reduce user waiting time, and lighten the network load by reducing the amount of duplicate data. Due to the promising advantages of edge caching, there have been many efforts motivated by this topic. In this paper, we have done an extensive survey on the existing work from our own perspectives. Distinguished from the existing review articles, our work not only investigates the latest articles in this area, but more importantly, covers all the researches of the total process of edge caching from caching placement optimization, policy design, to the content delivery process. In particular, we discuss the benefits of caching placement optimization from the perspective of different stakeholders, detail the delivery process, and conduct in-depth discussions from the five phases, i.e., requested content analysis, user model analysis, content retrieval, delivery, and update. Finally, we put forward several challenges and potential future directions, and hope to bring some ideas for the follow-up researches in this area.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
pp. 30-53
Author(s):  
Adithya Vadapalli ◽  
Fattaneh Bayatbabolghani ◽  
Ryan Henry

Abstract We describe the design, analysis, implementation, and evaluation of Pirsona, a digital content delivery system that realizes collaborative-filtering recommendations atop private information retrieval (PIR). This combination of seemingly antithetical primitives makes possible—for the first time—the construction of practically efficient e-commerce and digital media delivery systems that can provide personalized content recommendations based on their users’ historical consumption patterns while simultaneously keeping said consumption patterns private. In designing Pirsona, we have opted for the most performant primitives available (at the expense of rather strong non-collusion assumptions); namely, we use the recent computationally 1-private PIR protocol of Hafiz and Henry (PETS 2019.4) together with a carefully optimized 4PC Boolean matrix factorization.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
pp. 420-440
Author(s):  
Nguyen Phong Hoang ◽  
Arian Akhavan Niaki ◽  
Phillipa Gill ◽  
Michalis Polychronakis

Abstract Although the security benefits of domain name encryption technologies such as DNS over TLS (DoT), DNS over HTTPS (DoH), and Encrypted Client Hello (ECH) are clear, their positive impact on user privacy is weakened by—the still exposed—IP address information. However, content delivery networks, DNS-based load balancing, co-hosting of different websites on the same server, and IP address churn, all contribute towards making domain–IP mappings unstable, and prevent straightforward IP-based browsing tracking. In this paper, we show that this instability is not a roadblock (assuming a universal DoT/DoH and ECH deployment), by introducing an IP-based website finger-printing technique that allows a network-level observer to identify at scale the website a user visits. Our technique exploits the complex structure of most websites, which load resources from several domains besides their primary one. Using the generated fingerprints of more than 200K websites studied, we could successfully identify 84% of them when observing solely destination IP addresses. The accuracy rate increases to 92% for popular websites, and 95% for popular and sensitive web-sites. We also evaluated the robustness of the generated fingerprints over time, and demonstrate that they are still effective at successfully identifying about 70% of the tested websites after two months. We conclude by discussing strategies for website owners and hosting providers towards hindering IP-based website fingerprinting and maximizing the privacy benefits offered by DoT/DoH and ECH.


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (14) ◽  
pp. S34-S41
Author(s):  
Caroline Marchionni ◽  
Madolyn Connolly ◽  
Mélanie Gauthier ◽  
Mélanie Lavoie-Tremblay

Purpose: For the student nurse, peripheral venous cannulation is one of the most stressful skills to be learned. Although some healthcare employers/establishments offer courses on vascular access and infusion nursing as part of their onboarding programs, ultimately educational institutions should share the responsibility to ensure that graduating nurses can provide safe infusion therapies. Methods: An innovative vascular access and infusion nursing (VAIN) curriculum was created and mapped onto the entry to practice undergraduate nursing program at McGill University in Montréal, Québec, Canada. This presented an opportunity to implement new teaching approaches. Results: Students experienced multiple new teaching approaches including multimedia and experiential learning and live simulation to ensure acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills. The teaching approaches had to be rapidly modified with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The VAIN curriculum emphasizes simulation and directed practice, seeking to increase competence, confidence, and knowledge. The pandemic underscored the need for flexibility and creativity in content delivery.


TEM Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1011-1015
Author(s):  
George Pashev ◽  
Silvia Gaftandzhieva

The paper presents a chatbot oriented linguistic approach and a software prototype which addresses the need of delivering learning content based on queries in Bulgarian language. Two distinct database query generation approaches are presented, discussed and implemented. Pros and cons for each of them are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 78-93
Author(s):  
Khaled Dweikat ◽  
Munther Zyoud

The current study investigated the activities and practices used by three female EFL teachers during the coronavirus pandemic between March 2020 till February 2021. The study also explored the difficulties and obstacles faced by the three teachers during that period. To achieve these objectives, a qualitative approach utilizing a case study design was employed using three tools: teachers’ written reflections, content analysis of teachers’ posts on the social media, and a focus group meeting via Zoom. The significance of the study emerges from its objectives to contribute to EFL teachers’ professional development during the emergency cases. Results revealed that the three teachers were able to cope with the new situation by adopting new methods of content delivery and new forms of communication as well. These teachers used online technologies such as Facebook, YouTube, and Microsoft Teams to communicate with their students and the parents as well. However, some challenges emerged, including the financial situation of the families and its impact on students’ access to internet connection and family affordability. Under these conditions, teacher training programs are in demand for using appropriate technologies that engage the students and attract their attention.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (7) ◽  
pp. 26-34
Author(s):  
Fidel Ezeala-Harrison

We analyze the potentials of web-based and mobile-based digital technology to disseminate, inform, transmit, instruct, and exchange course content in the teaching of economics. Cyberlearning is the use of networked computer technology to enhance the mode of educational content delivery to learners, and involves personal, social, and distributed learning that is mediated by a variety of rapidly evolving computational devices such as computers, tablets, and smart phones, and involving other media such as the Web, and the Cloud. Yet cyberlearning is not only about learning to use computers or to think computationally; social networking has made it clear that the need is much more encompassing, including new modes of collaborating and learning for the full variety of human experiences mediated by networked computing and communications technologies. Educators have continued to search for answers about how new digital tools and environments can be utilized to enhance learning among students of our contemporary “New Age” generation. In the present paper we examine the potentials of cyberlearning and the opportunities it offers for promoting and assessing learning, made possible by new technologies; and how it can help learners to capitalize on those opportunities and the new practices that are made possible by these learning technologies. In particular, we examine ways of using technology for economics education to promote effective learning that result in deep rooted grasping of content, practices, and skills that will ultimately shape attitudes and contribute to enhanced policy and progress in economic matters of society.


2021 ◽  
pp. 074880682110283
Author(s):  
Manish J. Patel ◽  
Parth V. Shah ◽  
Stuti P. Garg ◽  
Robert T. Cristel

Blepharoplasty is a common procedure for correction of eyelid appearance. Online educational material among surgical procedures is often written higher than the recommended fifth-grade level. The objective of this study is to evaluate the readability of online patient education materials (OPEMs) available on Google for patients interested in blepharoplasty. Using 6 different pre-established readability scores, the top 100 Google results on blepharoplasty were screened for analysis. A total of 87 OPEMs were found to be relevant yielding an average grade reading level of 11.90 (range 7-20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.45-12.33). In addition, OPEMs readability scores were not influenced by whether the author was a medical provider. This study demonstrated the average reading level for available information on blepharoplasty is higher than the recommended fifth-grade reading level. Readability is only one metric for evaluating comprehendible information; however, authors of online medical education need to be more conscious of the public’s ability to comprehend and should tailor their content delivery appropriately.


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