delivery systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Royson Lee ◽  
Stylianos I. Venieris ◽  
Nicholas D. Lane

Internet-enabled smartphones and ultra-wide displays are transforming a variety of visual apps spanning from on-demand movies and 360°  videos to video-conferencing and live streaming. However, robustly delivering visual content under fluctuating networking conditions on devices of diverse capabilities remains an open problem. In recent years, advances in the field of deep learning on tasks such as super-resolution and image enhancement have led to unprecedented performance in generating high-quality images from low-quality ones, a process we refer to as neural enhancement. In this article, we survey state-of-the-art content delivery systems that employ neural enhancement as a key component in achieving both fast response time and high visual quality. We first present the components and architecture of existing content delivery systems, highlighting their challenges and motivating the use of neural enhancement models as a countermeasure. We then cover the deployment challenges of these models and analyze existing systems and their design decisions in efficiently overcoming these technical challenges. Additionally, we underline the key trends and common approaches across systems that target diverse use-cases. Finally, we present promising future directions based on the latest insights from deep learning research to further boost the quality of experience of content delivery systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 68 ◽  
pp. 103109
Elaheh Dalir Abdolahinia ◽  
Ghasem Barati ◽  
Zahra Ranjbar-Navazi ◽  
Jamileh Kadkhoda ◽  
Maryam Islami ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-21
Muhammad Farhan Nadeem ◽  
Larry R. Kaiser

Nano Today ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 101376
Wenlu Yan ◽  
Tianqun Lang ◽  
Runqi Zhu ◽  
Xiao Zhu ◽  
Yu Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Sara Assadpour ◽  
Mohammad Reza Shiran ◽  
Peyman Asadi ◽  
Javad Akhtari ◽  
Amirhossein Sahebkar

Sumatriptan (ST) is a commonly prescribed drug for treating migraine. The efficiency of several routes of ST administration has been investigated. Recently, the intranasal route with different delivery systems has gained interest owing to its fast-acting and effectiveness. The present study is aimed at reviewing the available studies on novel delivery systems for intranasal ST administration. The oral route of ST administration is common but complicated with some problems. Gastroparesis in patients with migraine may reduce the absorption and effectiveness of ST upon oral use. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal (GI) system and hepatic metabolism can alter the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of ST. The bioavailability of conventional nasal liquids is low due to the deposition of a large fraction of the delivered dose of a drug in the nasal cavity. Several delivery systems have been utilized in a wide range of preclinical and clinical studies to enhance the bioavailability of ST. The beneficial effects of the dry nasal powder of ST (AVP-825) have been proven in clinical studies. Moreover, other delivery systems based on microemulsions, microspheres, and nanoparticles have been introduced, and their higher bioavailability and efficacy were demonstrated in preclinical studies. Based on the extant findings, harnessing novel delivery systems can improve the bioavailability of ST and enhance its effectiveness against migraine attacks. However, further clinical studies are needed to approve the safety and efficacy of employing such systems in humans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Bei Wang ◽  
Xianfeng Wang ◽  
Zhiwei Xiong ◽  
Guanzheng Lu ◽  
Weikun Ma ◽  

AbstractTraditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides (TCMPs) are plentiful and renewable resources with properties such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity. Because the polysaccharide molecular chain contains a variety of active groups, different polysaccharide derivatives can be easily produced through chemical modification. They have been increasingly used in drug delivery systems (DDS). However, the potential of polysaccharides is usually ignored due to their structural complexity, poor stability or ambiguity of mechanisms of actions. This review summarized the applications of TCMPs in DDS around four main aspects. The general characteristics of TCMPs as drug delivery carriers, as well as the relationships between structure and function of them were summarized. Meanwhile, the direction of preparing multifunctional drug delivery materials with synergistic effect by using TCMPs was discussed. This review aims to become a reference for further research of TCMPs and their derivatives, especially applications of them as carriers in pharmaceutical preparation industry.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Lídia Ballell-Hosa ◽  
Elisabet González-Mira ◽  
Hector Santana ◽  
Judit Morla-Folch ◽  
Marc Moreno-Masip ◽  

Topical delivery has received great attention due to its localized drug delivery, its patient compliance, and its low risk for side effects. Recent developments have focused on studying new drug delivery systems as a strategy for addressing the challenges of current topical treatments. Here we describe the advances on an innovative drug delivery platform called DELOS nanovesicles for topical drug delivery. Previously, the production of DELOS nanovesicles demonstrated potentiality for the topical treatment of complex wounds, achieving well-tolerated liquid dispersions by this route. Here, research efforts have been focused on designing these nanocarriers with the best skin tolerability to be applied even to damaged skin, and on exploring the feasibility of adapting the colloidal dispersions to a more suitable dosage form for topical application. Accordingly, these drug delivery systems have been efficiently evolved to a hydrogel using MethocelTM K4M, presenting proper stability and rheological properties. Further, the integrity of these nanocarriers when being gellified has been confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and by Förster resonance energy transfer analysis with fluorescent-labeled DELOS nanovesicles, which is a crucial characterization not widely reported in the literature. Additionally, in vitro experiments have shown that recombinant human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF) protein integrated into gellified DELOS nanovesicles exhibits an enhanced bioactivity compared to the liquid form. Therefore, these studies suggest that such a drug delivery system is maintained unaltered when hydrogellified, becoming the DELOS nanovesicles-based hydrogels, an advanced formulation for topical use.

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