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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Ying

Fuel cells are regarded as one of the most promising energy conversion devices because of their high energy density and zero emission. Development of high-performance Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is vital to the commercial application of these fuel cell devices. Herein, we review the most significant breakthroughs in the development of high-performance Pt-based ORR electrocatalysts in the past decade. Novel and preferred nanostructures, including biaxially strained core–shell nanoplates, ultrafine jagged nanowires, nanocages with subnanometer-thick walls and nanoframes with three-dimensional surfaces, for excellent performance in ORR are emphasized. Important effects of strain, particle proximity, and surface morphology are fully discussed. The remaining changes and prospective research directions are also proposed.


Author(s):  
Safwen Ben Neila ◽  
Abderahman Rejeb ◽  
Péter Németh

In recent years, there is a need for new methods and frameworks for planning transport systems, improving their efficiency, and addressing globalisation and sustainability challenges. In addition, the use of existing capacities and infrastructure has raised significant issues in the transport sector. To achieve an economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable logistics ecosystem, Benoit Montreuil introduces the concept of “Physical Internet” (PI) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of logistics networks. As a ground-breaking transportation philosophy, the PI aims to revolutionise freight and logistics transport. Moreover, the PI can enhance logistics productivity through the organisation of large-scale pooling. Similar to Digital Internet that conveys data, the PI strives to connect, synchronise, and ship regular modular containers from the point of origin to an exact destination, thereby creating robust and collaborative logistics networks. While the literature on the PI is relatively growing, there is still a lack of reviews that synthesise this knowledge body, identify current trends and gaps, and advance the research more broadly.  Therefore, this study aims to investigate the potentials of the PI for the development of sustainable logistics networks. Overall, 59 studies are selected from leading academic databases and further analysed. The review findings reveal that most scholars focus on the optimisation of transport at the tactical and organisational stage while devoting little attention to the contribution of the PI to the social sustainability of logistics compared to the economic and environmental aspects.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Ashima Yadav ◽  
Dinesh Kumar Vishwakarma

Towards the end of 2019, Wuhan experienced an outbreak of novel coronavirus, which soon spread worldwide, resulting in a deadly pandemic that infected millions of people around the globe. The public health agencies followed many strategies to counter the fatal virus. However, the virus severely affected the lives of the people. In this paper, we study the sentiments of people from the top five worst affected countries by the virus, namely the USA, Brazil, India, Russia, and South Africa. We propose a deep language-independent Multilevel Attention-based Conv-BiGRU network (MACBiG-Net) , which includes embedding layer, word-level encoded attention, and sentence-level encoded attention mechanisms to extract the positive, negative, and neutral sentiments. The network captures the subtle cues in a document by focusing on the local characteristics of text along with the past and future context information for the sentiment classification. We further develop a COVID-19 Sentiment Dataset by crawling the tweets from Twitter and applying topic modeling to extract the hidden thematic structure of the document. The classification results demonstrate that the proposed model achieves an accuracy of 85%, which is higher than other well-known algorithms for sentiment classification. The findings show that the topics which evoked positive sentiments were related to frontline workers, entertainment, motivation, and spending quality time with family. The negative sentiments were related to socio-economic factors like racial injustice, unemployment rates, fake news, and deaths. Finally, this study provides feedback to the government and health professionals to handle future outbreaks and highlight future research directions for scientists and researchers.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 3102
Author(s):  
Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef ◽  
Bhuvanesh Gupta ◽  
Kamyar Shameli ◽  
Chetna Verma ◽  
Roshafima Rasit Ali ◽  
...  

The interest in developing antimicrobial surfaces is currently surging with the rise in global infectious disease events. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization (RIGC) is a powerful technique enabling permanent tunable and desired surface modifications imparting antimicrobial properties to polymer substrates to prevent disease transmission and provide safer biomaterials and healthcare products. This review aims to provide a broader perspective of the progress taking place in strategies for designing various antimicrobial polymeric surfaces using RIGC methods and their applications in medical devices, healthcare, textile, tissue engineering and food packing. Particularly, the use of UV, plasma, electron beam (EB) and γ-rays for biocides covalent immobilization to various polymers surfaces including nonwoven fabrics, films, nanofibers, nanocomposites, catheters, sutures, wound dressing patches and contact lenses is reviewed. The different strategies to enhance the grafted antimicrobial properties are discussed with an emphasis on the emerging approach of in-situ formation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) in radiation grafted substrates. The current applications of the polymers with antimicrobial surfaces are discussed together with their future research directions. It is expected that this review would attract attention of researchers and scientists to realize the merits of RIGC in developing timely, necessary antimicrobial materials to mitigate the fast-growing microbial activities and promote hygienic lifestyles.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2429
Author(s):  
Sajjad Muhammad ◽  
Shafqat Rasul Chaudhry ◽  
Ulf Dietrich Kahlert ◽  
Mika Niemelä ◽  
Daniel Hänggi

Ischemic stroke is still among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite intensive advancements in medical sciences, the clinical options to treat ischemic stroke are limited to thrombectomy and thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator within a narrow time window after stroke. Current state of the art knowledge reveals the critical role of local and systemic inflammation after stroke that can be triggered by interactions taking place at the brain and immune system interface. Here, we discuss different cellular and molecular mechanisms through which brain–immune interactions can take place. Moreover, we discuss the evidence how the brain influence immune system through the release of brain derived antigens, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, chemokines, upregulated adhesion molecules, through infiltration, activation and polarization of immune cells in the CNS. Furthermore, the emerging concept of stemness-induced cellular immunity in the context of neurodevelopment and brain disease, focusing on ischemic implications, is discussed. Finally, we discuss current evidence on brain–immune system interaction through the autonomic nervous system after ischemic stroke. All of these mechanisms represent potential pharmacological targets and promising future research directions for clinically relevant discoveries.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Masood Badri ◽  
Mugheer Al Khaili ◽  
Hamad Al Dhaheri ◽  
Guang Yang ◽  
Asma Al Rashdi ◽  
...  

Abstract This study focused on older adults (60 + years old) in Abu Dhabi during the COVID-19 pandemic before vaccines were made available to them. They faced more strict rules of movement restriction and isolation that might have resulted in certain psychological feelings and social reactions. Data were gathered through an online survey of community members conducted from April to July of 2020, in which 574 older adults responded. The main objective was to understand Abu Dhabi older adults’ main psychological feelings during the pandemic and to identify their main concerns and challenges considering the various COVID-19 related policies and restrictions. The influence of the pandemic on older adults’ health and weight was also investigated. Results of descriptive analyses show that some negative psychological feelings were common among older adults’ during the pandemic. However, the psychological feelings did not portray significant changes with time, except for sleeping disorders and overeating. The movement restrictions imposed on elderlies and not being able to see children and grandchildren when wanted were the two main concerns reported. The research summaries some policy guidance while noting some limitations of this study and future research directions.


Author(s):  
Akanksha Mathur ◽  
◽  
Prof. C. P. Gupta ◽  

Online propagation of untrue information has been and is becoming an increasing problem. Understanding and modeling the diffusion of information on Online Social Networks (OSN's) of voluminous data is the prime concern. The paper provides the history of the epidemic spread and its analogy with untrue information. This paper provides a review of untrue information on online social networks and methods of detection of untrue information based on epidemiological models. Open research challenges and potential future research directions are also highlighted. The paper aimed at aiding research for the identification of untrue information on OSNs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Sundas Bahar Yaqoob ◽  
Showkat Ahmad Bhawani ◽  
Rokhsana Mohammed Ismail Abdulrahman

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a sustainable approach for the remediation of metals and the simultaneous production of energy. This paper highlighted the usage of mango extract to produce electricity as an organic source for bacteria and reduce metal ions from wastewater. The observed results were 51 mV in 15 days with 500 Ω of external resistance. The whole operation was carried out at room temperature. The observed current and power density were 28.947 mA/m2 and 0.972 mW/m2, respectively. The internal resistance was 150 Ω, which is lower than external resistance. The remediation performance varied with the metal ions as follows: Pb (II) shows 75%, Cd (II) shows 74.11%, and Cr (III) shows 80.50%. Finally, the detailed working mechanism of the present study, MFC challenges, and future research directions are covered in this paper.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (18) ◽  
pp. 6163
Author(s):  
Wencheng Yang ◽  
Song Wang ◽  
Nor Masri Sahri ◽  
Nickson M. Karie ◽  
Mohiuddin Ahmed ◽  
...  

The large number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices that need interaction between smart devices and consumers makes security critical to an IoT environment. Biometrics offers an interesting window of opportunity to improve the usability and security of IoT and can play a significant role in securing a wide range of emerging IoT devices to address security challenges. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive survey on the current biometrics research in IoT security, especially focusing on two important aspects, authentication and encryption. Regarding authentication, contemporary biometric-based authentication systems for IoT are discussed and classified based on different biometric traits and the number of biometric traits employed in the system. As for encryption, biometric-cryptographic systems, which integrate biometrics with cryptography and take advantage of both to provide enhanced security for IoT, are thoroughly reviewed and discussed. Moreover, challenges arising from applying biometrics to IoT and potential solutions are identified and analyzed. With an insight into the state-of-the-art research in biometrics for IoT security, this review paper helps advance the study in the field and assists researchers in gaining a good understanding of forward-looking issues and future research directions.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ankur Lohachab ◽  
Saurabh Garg ◽  
Muhammad Bilal Amin

<div><div><div><p>The current blockchain paradigm is being hailed as an unquenchable goal to develop Hyperledger Fabric (HF)-based applications, resulting in a set of substantial enterprises shifting their networking operations, as intriguing consortia to plug the permissioned-nature of blockchain-based computing. While this practice endeavors to fundamentally revolutionize industries, one of the unavoidable problems that emerge is a lack of communication among autonomous HF-based networks, which can hinder the ongoing research landscape and consequently, have detrimental effects on its adoption. Towards this, blockchain interoperability (BI) has been heralded as the underlying concept by which communication can be derived through locating an inter-connection bridge. Considering BI’s significant traction, this paper introduces a new methodological approach to deal with the disparate nature of HF-based networks, termed OClient, for embracing two different interoperabilities (inter-network and inter-chain). This approach strategically tunes the inner working of clients by providing the global information of HF network topology that extends their conventional role as a matching service provider for facilitating opportunistic communication, in contrast to the existing solutions where typically third-parties have been exploited as the intermediaries. The paper streamlines the discussion by putting forth a pragmatic multi-HF (MHF) network scenario to formulate the disconnectivity problem, followed by constructing interaction-path-based graphs and conducting rigorous simulations. More importantly, this paper manifests experimental examples and corresponding results, providing insights across various dimensions of client-level interoperability so as to understand the impact on performance for combinations of inter-network and inter-chain scenarios. Succinctly, the results demonstrate that OClient is close to the performance of autonomous HF networks, which makes it a useful approach. Besides, this paper strives to understand how the adopted failure strategy to maintain ledger consistency contributes to performance and finally, concludes by anticipating significant future research directions towards HF interoperability.</p></div></div></div>


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