financial loss
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Timothy McIntosh ◽  
A. S. M. Kayes ◽  
Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen ◽  
Alex Ng ◽  
Paul Watters

Although ransomware has been around since the early days of personal computers, its sophistication and aggression have increased substantially over the years. Ransomware, as a type of malware to extort ransom payments from victims, has evolved to deliver payloads in different attack vectors and on multiple platforms, and creating repeated disruptions and financial loss to many victims. Many studies have performed ransomware analysis and/or presented detection, defense, or prevention techniques for ransomware. However, because the ransomware landscape has evolved aggressively, many of those studies have become less relevant or even outdated. Previous surveys on anti-ransomware studies have compared the methods and results of the studies they surveyed, but none of those surveys has attempted to critique on the internal or external validity of those studies. In this survey, we first examined the up-to-date concept of ransomware, and listed the inadequacies in current ransomware research. We then proposed a set of unified metrics to evaluate published studies on ransomware mitigation, and applied the metrics to 118 such studies to comprehensively compare and contrast their pros and cons, with the attempt to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we forecast the future trends of ransomware evolution, and propose future research directions.

Jefri Hardi ◽  

The Constitutional Court (MK) issued Decision Number 25/PUU-XIV/2016 on January 25, 2017. This decision states clearly that the word "can" in Article 2 paragraph (1) and Article 3 of Law Number 31 Year 1999 jo. Law Number 20 of 2001 concerning the Eradication of Criminal Acts of Corruption (UU Tipikor) is unconstitutional and lacks legal force. With the elimination of the word "can," a person can only be said to have violated Article 2 paragraph (1) and Article 3 of the Anti-Corruption Law if the person's actions resulted in real state losses, or losses of the nature of actual loss, and not to accommodate state losses that are still potential, or potential losses.

2022 ◽  
Lateefat Modupe Habeeb ◽  
Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi ◽  
Misbahu Garba ◽  
Morufu O Raimi

The frequent use of antibiotics may result in drug residues that can be discovered at varying quantities in animal products such as milk or meat. The presence of pharmaceutical residues in food above the MRLs has been perceived globally by various persons. Antibiotics residues are present in food, which can endanger human health by causing antibiotic sensitivity, allergic reactions, microflora imbalance, bacterial resistance to antibiotics in microorganisms, and financial loss to the food industry. Farmers around the world utilize them on a sporadic basis for both preventative and curative purposes. This study assessed the antibiotics residues in raw meat sold in 6 slaughter houses in Kano States. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving six (6) major slaughter house in Kano state. Muscle, Kidney and liver samples were collected from each slaughterhouse. The antibiotic residues in the meat samples were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline residue results were presented in charts and tables. Out of a total of 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 15 (83%) of the total samples had detectable levels of tetracycline residues from which 6(33.3%) had tetracycline residues at violative levels above the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs), out of those 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 6(33%) of the total samples had detectable levels of oxytetracycline residues from which 3(17%) had oxytetracycline residues at violative levels above the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs) and out of those 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 12(67%) of the total samples had detectable levels of ciprofloxacin, all levels are below the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs). This high level of tetracycline and oxytetracycline residues in greater proportion of meat destined for human consumption at violative levels could be as a result of the indiscriminate use and misuse of veterinary drugs as commonly practiced among livestock producers and marketers without observing withdrawal period prior to slaughter. These results indicate that consumers may be predisposed to health hazards and hinder international meat trade from Nigeria. Regulatory authorities should therefore ensure compliance with good agricultural practices including withdrawal period of drugs used for treatment of food animals.

2022 ◽  
Yang Xu ◽  
Yameng Wang ◽  
Lulu Wang ◽  
Wenxing Liang ◽  
Qianqian Yang

Botrytis cinerea causes grey mold resulting in enormous financial loss. Fungicide resistance of B. cinerea has become a serious issue in food safety and agricultural environmental protection. Sodium valproate (SV) has been used in clinical trials, thus it is excellent candidate for fungicide development considering its safety. However, the antifungal activity remains unclear. SV was effective against B. cinerea by enhancing acetylation of histone H3, including H3K9ac, H3K14ac, and H3K56ac. A transcriptomics analysis revealed that the expression of 1,557 genes changed significantly in response to SV. A pathway enrichment analysis identified 16 significant GO terms, in which molecular functions were mainly involved. In addition, the expression levels of 13 genes involved in B. cinerea virulence and 5 genes involved in tomato immune response were altered by the SV treatment. These results indicate that SV inhibits B. cinerea by enhancing acetylation of histone H3 and modifying gene transcription. Thus, SV is an effective, safe potential antifungal agent for control of both pre- and post-harvest losses caused by B. cinerea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (1) ◽  
pp. e17-e18
Clayton J. Brinster ◽  
G. Thomas Escousse ◽  
Philip A. Rivera ◽  
Hernan Bazan ◽  
Ross Parkerson ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 1083-1085
Indrajit Banerjee ◽  
Jared Robinson ◽  
Brijesh Sathian ◽  
Indraneel Banerjee

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has firmly rooted itself within our countries, communities, homes and now everyday lives. The impact of this global pandemic is immeasurable as it is catastrophic in nature and involves both a human and financial loss. Suicide and self-harm (SH) are both a serious public health and social issue. It is however preventable via the use of timely, evidence-based and many times low-cost interventions and therapies. The current situation depicted Nepal shows a true indicator of the mental health of the nation, as a precipitating factor (i.e., the extreme stress of COVID-19 and the lockdown) has exposed the submerged “ice-berg” phenomenon of disease.  It is evident that COVID-19 and the lockdown had a massively negative effect on the mental health of the population in Nepal. The increased rates of suicide and self-harm also simultaneously exposed the great pre-existing fragility of the mental health of the nation. It is therefore vital that both Nepal and other countries alike take cognizance of the fact that extra support and preventative measures need to be introduced during this difficult period and that further national programs must be employed to best aid the mental health of their fellow countrymen.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 497-504
Modou Séré ◽  
Micheline Nomtondo Sawadogo ◽  
Sié Hermann Pooda ◽  
Benoît Kaboré ◽  
Adama Kaboré ◽  

Fasciolosis is a major zoonosis of ruminants which causes great economic losses to breeders. Given the economic and public health importance of this pathology, it is necessary to establish the current situation in a perspective of animal and ruminant meat consumer health protection. Therefore, the present study was conducted at the slaughterhouse of Dédougou in order to identify the species of fluke that caused this pathology in the Boucle du Mouhoun region and to estimate the prevalence, the risk factors and the economic losses associated with this pathology. For this purpose, 820 cattle and 6360 small ruminants were diagnosed through post-mortem examination over a five-month period from March to August 2018. Out of the 6360 small ruminant livers examined, no cases of infestation were observed unlike cattle in which the prevalence of infestation was 2.07%. These infestations were all due to Fasciola gigantica. Regarding the risk factors, a slight effect of the month and a high influence of animals' origin were observed. March, with a prevalence of 0.25%, was the most favorable infestation month (P-value=0.05) and Sourou (19.51%), was the highest infestation risk area (P-value<0.0001). The estimated financial loss associated with the infestations was XOF 22,200.29 per infested animal. The situation is particularly worrying insofar as some populations, especially rural populations, consume meat from uncontrolled slaughter areas. Appropriate precautions should therefore be taken to ensure both consumer and animal health, given the zoonotic nature of the disease.

Тетяна Кобєлєва

In the practice of an industrial enterprise, the concept of compliance is closely linked to the management / control system in the organization, as well as to the risks of non-compliance, non-compliance with the laws, regulations, rules and standards of supervisory authorities, industry associations and organizations, codes of conduct, etc.The purpose of the article is to investigate the theoretical and methodological basis of compliance risk and the possibilities of using this category in the organizational and economic activities of an industrial enterprise in order to ensure its stable and efficient operation.The concept of compliance risk with respect to industrial sphere is not enshrined in the Ukrainian legislation, but it is successfully used in banking and can be successfully adapted to the characteristics of an industrial enterprise. For industrial enterprises, it is proposed to define compliance risk as the risk of the application of legal or regulatory penalties, material financial loss, loss of market share or loss of reputation by an enterprise as a result of non-compliance with laws, regulations, rules, standards of self-regulatory organizations or external and internal codes or regulations. concerning production and business activity. The compliance function draws attention to many different aspects of compliance risks: from financial risks to reputational risks, from corruption to the code of conduct of employees, and this comprehensive approach allows for the most effective monitoring of the enterprise activity and to make informed and thoughtful decisions, create situations where the risk of compliance risk is minimal. In the article it is proved that if an enterprise plans to enter the international market, work with the compliance function is a prerequisite for development and further cooperation, since many foreign partners work exclusively with organizations that comply with international standards, including in the work with compliance risk control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 61 (1) ◽  
pp. 6-13
Sandra Radoš Krnel ◽  
Carolin Kilian ◽  
Marjetka Hovnik Keršmanc ◽  
Maja Roškar ◽  
Helena Koprivnikar

Abstract Background In the first months of 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus spread all over the world and numerous measures were adopted that had a strong impact on both personal and public life. This contribution explores changes in alcohol and tobacco use during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia. Methods Self-reported changes in alcohol and tobacco use during the first few months of the Covid-19 pandemic were recorded in 495 Slovenian adults, as part of the European Alcohol Use and COVID-19 survey. Results About half of the Slovenian sample indicated that the frequency of drinking occasions did not change in the months after the pandemic’s outbreak, while the remainder stated either a decrease (26.0%) or an increase (24.2%). 23.1% reported a decrease and 17.3% an increase in the quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion. Respondents who reported that their overall alcohol consumption decreased were more likely to be male than female and more likely to be younger than middle-aged. Those who reported experiencing at least a substantial level of distress due to financial loss were at a four-times increased risk of reporting an increase in their alcohol consumption compared to individuals who reported no or only some financial distress. Of the 120 people reporting the use of tobacco, almost half indicated an increase in tobacco consumption within the previous month, and about 20% reported a decrease in use. The differences in the results between Slovenia and other European countries are small and the overall pattern suggests that the situation in Slovenia was comparable to other European countries. Conclusion As this pandemic continues to evolve, further monitoring is needed to identify the long-term effects of alcohol and tobacco use on public health in relation to the management of COVID-19.

Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Matthew C. Camden ◽  
Jeffrey S. Hickman ◽  
Richard J. Hanowski

Commercial motor vehicle safety is of utmost importance, as crashes involving commercial motor vehicles often result in significant property damage, injuries, fatalities, and financial loss for fleets. However, fleet managers are often unsure what strategies other fleets have used to successfully improve safety. To identify best practices, researchers completed case studies with nine commercial motor vehicle fleets that successfully improved their safety performance. A content analysis was performed, and the successful strategies were organized into the Haddon Matrix. Results showed that there was no one single strategy that fleets used to improve safety. Instead, fleets relied on a comprehensive approach focusing on pre-crash countermeasures, including addressing hiring practices, driver training, fleet safety culture, safety technologies, scheduling, and maintenance. However, an enhanced safety culture and advanced safety technology were identified as critical components to their safety improvement. Results from this study may help fleets understand what their peers have used to successfully improve safety and which strategies may not be as helpful.

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