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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Stephen B. Driscoll

Abstract This article addresses some established protocols for characterizing thermoplastics and whether they are homogeneous resins, alloyed, or blended compositions or highly modified thermoplastic composites. It begins with a discussion on characterizing mechanical, rheological, and thermal properties of polymer. This is followed by a section describing molecular weight determination using viscosity measurements. Next, the article discusses the use of cone and plate and parallel plate geometries in melt rheology. It then reviews the processes involved in the analysis of thermoplastic resins by chromatography. Finally, the article covers three operations of thermoanalysis, namely differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical testing.

Henrik Parsamyan ◽  
Khachik Sahakyan ◽  
Khachatur Nerkararyan

Abstract The optical bistability caused by the coupling between modes of the parallel-plate waveguide and a nonlinear hemicylindrical crystal is studied using theoretical and numerical analysis. In such a system a waveguide channel is parallelly coupled to whispering gallery modes of a hemicylindrical microresonator ensuring bistable behaviour at input intensities of the order of a few MW/cm2. The characteristic minimum switching time of the system (around 30 ps) can be controlled by varying the thickness of the metal layer which couples the waveguide and whispering gallery modes. This is conditioned by the change of the quality Q-factor, as well as the coupling coefficient of the resonator. The main advantages of the system are fabrication simplicity, small sizes of the order of 3 µm and the possibility of adjusting the processes by making use of the electro-optical effect.


Objective: The main objective of our study is the comprehensive analysis and characterization of the existing spreadability evaluation strategies, the comparison of the obtained results reproducibility and convergence through the example of the 9 most widely used dermatological gels. Methods: Dolobene®, Flucinar®, Ketorol®, Contractubex®, Dr. Theiss Venen gel®, Solcoseryl®, Deep Relief®, Hepatrombin® pharmacopoeia gel samples were analyzed using parallel-plate, “slip and drag”, and viscometry methods. Analysis was performed in flow mode at 32±0.2 °C, over shear rates ranging from 0 to 350 s−1, increasing over a period of 120 s, and was maintained at the superior limit for 10 s and then decreased during the same period. At least 5 replicates of each sample were evaluated, and the upward flow curves were fitted using the Casson mathematical model. Results: Solcoseryl® and Dolobene® showed the best spreadability in the parallel-plate method (3115.66±50.00 and 3316.63±50.00, respectively); Contractubex® and Dolobene showed the best spreadability in the “slip and drag” test (73.46±0.5 and 18.32±0.5, respectively); Solcoseryl® and Contractubex® showed the best spreadability in the viscometry test (43.86±0.5 and 76.92±0.5, respectively). Conclusion: This study analyzed the existing methods for determining the spreadability using commercially available samples of the dermatological gels as examples. The viscometric and the "Slip and drag" methods use different characteristics of spreadability, giving a complex evaluation of the measured parameter in vitro. Therefore, the combination of these two methods has the greatest prospects for reliable determination of this indicator.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 54-64
Jagadeeshwar Kodavaty ◽  
R.K. Pavan Kumar Pannala ◽  
Sakshi Wasson ◽  
Mihir Mittal ◽  
Atif Irshad

Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) rheology is a technique to analyze materials that are viscoelastic in nature. The raw values of stress and strain that were taken out from rheometer during the large amplitude oscillatory shear test are used in the constitutive models. The model parameters from the constitutive model are then analyzed on the materials being tested. Various test protocols and geometries will be used to analyze the materials of interest during LAOS rheological examination. The selection of test protocols and usage of geometry are less studied in testing various kinds of materials using LAOS. Cone and plate and parallel plate geometries are generally used for LAOS. The test protocols would be varying amplitude and varying frequencies. In the present work, quantification of relative performance of test protocols and geometry that have been used during the analysis of cross-linked poly vinyl alcohol hyaluronic acid (PVAHA) gels as material systems are studied using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The methodological approach using output oriented constant return to scale (CRS) and output oriented variable return to scale (VRS) are tested with the decision making units (DMU) as the geometry and test protocols used. These results are then combined with the Shannon's entropy to rank the efficient DMUs. Using Shannon's entropy combined with CRS and VRS, it is suggested that the use of parallel plate geometry with the test protocol of 0.5 rad/s and 50 frequency is best suitable for the cross-linked hyaluronic acid and poly vinyl alcohol gels examined.

2022 ◽  
A. A. Folgueiras-Amador ◽  
J. W. Hodgson ◽  
R. C. D. Brown

Organic electrosynthesis in flow reactors is an area of increasing interest, with efficient mass transport and high electrode area to reactor volume present in many flow electrolysis cell designs facilitating higher rates of production with high selectivity. The controlled reaction environment available in flow cells also offers opportunities to develop new electrochemical processes. In this chapter, various types of electrochemical flow cells are reviewed in the context of laboratory synthesis, paying particular attention to how the different reactor environments impact upon the electrochemical processes, and the factors responsible for good cell performance. Coverage includes well-established plane-parallel-plate designs, reactors with small interelectrode gaps, extended-channel electrolysis cells, and highly sophisticated designs with rapidly rotating electrodes to enhance mass transport. In each case, illustrative electrosyntheses are presented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-48
Esteban F. Medina-Bañuelos ◽  
Benjamín M. Marín-Santibáñez ◽  
José Pérez-González

2022 ◽  
Vol 171 ◽  
pp. 107227
Minlin Yang ◽  
Elaine Low ◽  
Chung Lim Law ◽  
Jie-Chao Chen ◽  
Pau Loke Show ◽  

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