Cationic organic pollutants (dyes and pesticides) are mainly hydrosoluble and easily contaminate water and create a serious problem for biotic and abiotic species. The elimination of these dangerous contaminants from water was accomplished by adsorption using cyclodextrin nanosponges. These nanosponges were elaborated by the cross-linking between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and β-cyclodextrin in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol). Their physicochemical characteristics were characterized by gravimetry, acid-base titration, TGA, 13C NMR, ATR-FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and Stereomicroscopy. The BP5 nanosponges displayed 68.4% yield, 3.31 mmol/g COOH groups, 0.16 mmol/g β-CD content, 54.2% swelling, 97.0% PQ removal, 96.7% SO removal, and 98.3% MG removal for 25 mg/L of initial concentration. The pseudo-second-order model was suitable for kinetics using 180 min of contact time. Langmuir isotherm was suitable for isotherm with the maximum adsorption of 120.5, 92.6, and 64.9 mg/g for paraquat (PQ), safranin (SO), and malachite green (MG) adsorption, respectively. Finally, the reusability performance after five regeneration times reached 94.1%, 91.6%, and 94.6% for PQ, SO, and MG adsorption, respectively.
Accurately and sensitively sensing and monitoring the pH in the environment is a key fundamental issue for human health. Nanomaterial and nanotechnology combined with fluorescent materials can be emerged as excellent possible methods to develop high-performance sensing membranes and help monitor pH. Herein, a series of fluorescent nanofiber membranes (NFMs) containing poly-1,8-naphthimide derivative-3-[dimethyl-[2-(2-methylprop-2-enoyloxy)ethyl]azaniumyl]propane-1-sulfonate (PNI-SBMA) are fabricated by electrospinning the solution of PNI-SBMA blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The surfactant-like functionalities in side chains of PNI-SBMA endow the NFMs with outstanding hydrophilicity, and the naphthimide derivatives are sensitive to pH by photoinduced electron transfer effect, which contribute to highly efficient pH fluorescence sensing applications of NFMs. Specifically, the PNI-SBMA/PVA NFM with a ratio of 1:9 (NFM2) shows high sensitivity and good cyclability to pH. This work demonstrates an effective strategy to realize a fluorescent sensor NFM that has a fast and sensitive response to pH, which will benefit its application of pH sensor monitoring in the water treatment process.
The development of responsive composite materials is among the most interesting challenges in contemporary material science and technology. Nevertheless, the use of highly expensive nanostructured fillers has slowed down the spread of these smart materials in several key productive sectors. Here, we propose a new piezoresistive PVA composite containing a cheap, conductive, waste-derived, cotton biochar. We evaluated the electromagnetic properties of the composites under both AC and DC regimes and as a function of applied pressure, showing promisingly high conductivity values by using over 20 wt.% filler loading. We also measured the conductivity of the waste cotton biochar from 20 K up to 350 K observing, for the first time, hopping charge transport in biochar materials.