This article addresses some established protocols for characterizing thermoplastics and whether they are homogeneous resins, alloyed, or blended compositions or highly modified thermoplastic composites. It begins with a discussion on characterizing mechanical, rheological, and thermal properties of polymer. This is followed by a section describing molecular weight determination using viscosity measurements. Next, the article discusses the use of cone and plate and parallel plate geometries in melt rheology. It then reviews the processes involved in the analysis of thermoplastic resins by chromatography. Finally, the article covers three operations of thermoanalysis, namely differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical testing.
Using static bomb combustion calorimetry, the combustion energy of 1-methylhydantoin was obtained, from which the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the crystalline phase at T = 298.15 K of the compound studied was calculated. Through thermogravimetry, mass loss rates were measured as a function of temperature, from which the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated. Additionally, some properties of fusion were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, such as enthalpy and temperature. Adding the enthalpy of fusion to the enthalpy of vaporization, the enthalpy of sublimation of the compound was obtained at T = 298.15 K. By combining the enthalpy of formation of the compound in crystalline phase with its enthalpy of sublimation, the respective standard molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase was calculated. On the other hand, the results obtained in the present work were compared with those of other derivatives of hydantoin, with which the effect of the change of some substituents in the base heterocyclic ring was evaluated.
Donepezil (DPZ) is generally administered orally to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, oral administration can cause gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, to enhance compliance, a new way to deliver DPZ from transdermal patch was developed. Ionic bonds were created by dissolving dicarboxylic acid and DPZ in ethanol, resulting in a stable ionic liquid (IL) state. The synthesized ILs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DPZ ILs were then transformed to a suitable drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of DPZ. The novel DPZ ILs patch inhibits crystallization of the IL, indicating coherent design. Moreover, DPZ ILs and DPZ IL patch formulations performed excellent skin permeability compared to that of the DPZ free-base patch in both in vitro and ex vivo skin permeability studies.
A new hydrophilic polymeric nanocomposite containing AgNPs was synthesized by chemical reduction of metal ions in an aqueous medium in the presence of the copolymer. A new water-soluble copolymer of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole and vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt (poly(VT-co-Na-VSA)) was obtained by free-radical copolymerization and was used as a stabilizing precursor agent. The structural, dimensional, and morphological properties of the nanocomposite were studied by UV–Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Hydrodynamic diameter of macroclubs for the copolymer was 171 nm, and for the nanocomposite it was 694 nm. Zeta potential for the copolymer was −63.8 mV, and for the nanocomposite it was −70.4 mV. The nanocomposite had strong antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms: MIC and MBC values were in the range of 0.25–4.0 and 0.5–8.0 μg/mL, respectively.
Water lily (Nymphaea antares) is one of the most valuable aquatic ornamental plants
which has bright potential in the floriculture industry. It may be useful as an urban
ecosystem and as a source of medicinal compounds. Due to its potential to become a new
value-added product in the food industry, water lily (N. antares) was investigated in this
study. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the nutritional content and
antioxidant activity in water lily leaves and petioles with different pH extraction buffers.
Water lily extract was obtained using three different pH extraction buffers, Tris buffer at
pH 6.8, pH 7.1 and pH 7.8. The heat capacity of the extract was analysed using
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and different functional groups were identified
using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal denaturation of the leaves
sample was detected at 81.84°C. The antioxidant enzymes activities including catalase
(CAT), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)
were determined in the leaves and petioles of water lily. In leaves, PPO activity was found
to be higher in samples with pH 7.1 of the extraction buffer while there were no
significant differences for activities of CAT, POX and SOD in all samples. In petioles,
PPO and POX activity were found to be higher in samples with pH 7.8 and 7.1 of
extraction buffer, respectively. Thus, the study found that a pH range of 7 to 9 extraction
buffers did not greatly affect most of the analysis performed.
The possibility of using graphene oxide as a modifying additive for polymer fiber-reinforced composites based on epoxy resin and basalt roving has been studied. The content of graphene oxide in the system has been experimentally selected, which has the best effect on the physico-mechanical properties of the obtained polymer composite material. The efficiency of the modification of the graphene oxide surface with APTES finishing additives and aminoacetic acid, which provides chemical interaction at the polymer matrix–filler interface, has been considered. The influence of graphene oxide and functionalizing additives on the polymer curing process was investigated using the thermometric method and differential scanning calorimetry.
The synthesis and characterization of multicolor light-emitting nanomaterials based on rare earths (RE3+) are of great importance due to their possible use in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs or displays. In the present work, oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals co-doped with Tb3+, Eu3+ ions were fabricated from amorphous xerogels at 350 °C. The analysis of the thermal behavior of fabricated xerogels was performed using TG/DSC measurements (thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)). The crystallization of BaF2 phase at the nanoscale was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the changes in silicate sol–gel host were determined by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The luminescent characterization of prepared sol–gel materials was carried out by excitation and emission spectra along with decay analysis from the 5D4 level of Tb3+. As a result, the visible light according to the electronic transitions of Tb3+ (5D4 → 7FJ (J = 6–3)) and Eu3+ (5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0–4)) was recorded. It was also observed that co-doping with Eu3+ caused the shortening in decay times of the 5D4 state from 1.11 ms to 0.88 ms (for xerogels) and from 6.56 ms to 4.06 ms (for glass-ceramics). Thus, based on lifetime values, the Tb3+/Eu3+ energy transfer (ET) efficiencies were estimated to be almost 21% for xerogels and 38% for nano-glass-ceramics. Therefore, such materials could be successfully predisposed for laser technologies, spectral converters, and three-dimensional displays.