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2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 108401
Wei Chen ◽  
Debasish Jana ◽  
Aryan Singh ◽  
Mengshi Jin ◽  
Mattia Cenedese ◽  

2022 ◽  
Robert E. Criss

ABSTRACT Field data reveal how the discharge (Q), channel area (A), and average water velocity (Vavg) of natural streams functionally depend on the effective stage (h) above channel bottom. A graphical technique allows the level that corresponds to a dry channel, denoted “h0,” to be determined, permitting the dependent variables Q, A, and Vavg to all be expressed as simple functions of h, equal to hL– h0, where hL is the local stage that is typically reported relative to an arbitrary, site-specific datum. Once h0 is known, plots of log Q, log A, and log Vavg versus log h can be constructed using available data. These plots define strong, nearly linear trends for which the slopes (1) quantify the power relationships among these variables; (2) show that Vavg varies nearly linearly with h, unlike behaviors assumed in the Chezy and Manning equations; (3) distinguish the individual contributions of A and Vavg to discharge, which is their product; (4) provide quantitative means with which to compare different sites; and (5) offer new insights into the character and dynamics of natural streams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 322
Dmitry V. Ershov ◽  
Egor A. Gavrilyuk ◽  
Natalia V. Koroleva ◽  
Elena I. Belova ◽  
Elena V. Tikhonova ◽  

Remote monitoring of natural afforestation processes on abandoned agricultural lands is crucial for assessments and predictions of forest cover dynamics, biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services. In this work, we built on the general approach of combining satellite and field data for forest mapping and developed a simple and robust method for afforestation dynamics assessment. This method is based on Landsat imagery and index-based thresholding and specifically targets suitability for limited field data. We demonstrated method’s details and performance by conducting a case study for two bordering districts of Rudnya (Smolensk region, Russia) and Liozno (Vitebsk region, Belarus). This study area was selected because of the striking differences in the development of the agrarian sectors of these countries during the post-Soviet period (1991-present day). We used Landsat data to generate a consistent time series of five-year cloud-free multispectral composite images for the 1985–2020 period via the Google Earth Engine. Three spectral indices, each specifically designed for either forest, water or bare soil identification, were used for forest cover and arable land mapping. Threshold values for indices classification were both determined and verified based on field data and additional samples obtained by visual interpretation of very high-resolution satellite imagery. The developed approach was applied over the full Landsat time series to quantify 35-year afforestation dynamics over the study area. About 32% of initial arable lands and grasslands in the Russian district were afforested by the end of considered period, while the agricultural lands in Belarus’ district decreased only by around 5%. Obtained results are in the good agreement with the previous studies dedicated to the agricultural lands abandonment in the Eastern Europe region. The proposed method could be further developed into a general universally applicable technique for forest cover mapping in different growing conditions at local and regional spatial levels.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 176
Julio Garrote

Flood hazard and risk analysis in developing countries is a difficult task due to the absence or scarce availability of flow data and digital elevation models (DEMs) with the necessary quality. Up to eight DEMs (ALOS Palsar, Aster GDEM, Bare Earth DEM, SRTM DEM, Merit DEM, TanDEM-X DEM, NASA DEM, and Copernicus DEM) of different data acquisition, spatial resolution, and data processing were used to reconstruct the January 2015 flood event. The systematic flow rate record from the Mocuba city gauge station as well as international aid organisms and field data were used to define both the return period peak flows in years for different flood frequencies (Tyear) and the January 2015 flooding event peak flow. Both visual and statistical analysis of flow depth values at control point locations give us a measure of the different hydraulic modelling performance. The results related to the Copernicus DEM, both in visual and statistical approach, show a clear improvement over the results of the other free global DEMs. Under the assumption that Copernicus DEM provides the best results, a flood hazard analysis was carried out, its results being in agreement with previous data of the effects of the January 2015 flooding event in the Mocuba District. All these results highlight the step forward that Copernicus DEM represents for flood hazard analysis in developing countries, along with the use of so-called “citizen science” in the form of flooding evidence field data acquisition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 263
Haixia Zhao ◽  
Tingting Bai ◽  
Zhiqiang Wang

Seismic field data are usually contaminated by random or complex noise, which seriously affect the quality of seismic data contaminating seismic imaging and seismic interpretation. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data has always been a key step in seismic data processing. Deep learning approaches have been successfully applied to suppress seismic random noise. The training examples are essential in deep learning methods, especially for the geophysical problems, where the complete training data are not easy to be acquired due to high cost of acquisition. In this work, we propose a natural images pre-trained deep learning method to suppress seismic random noise through insight of the transfer learning. Our network contains pre-trained and post-trained networks: the former is trained by natural images to obtain the preliminary denoising results, while the latter is trained by a small amount of seismic images to fine-tune the denoising effects by semi-supervised learning to enhance the continuity of geological structures. The results of four types of synthetic seismic data and six field data demonstrate that our network has great performance in seismic random noise suppression in terms of both quantitative metrics and intuitive effects.

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