dependent variables
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Alexander Diel ◽  
Sarah Weigelt ◽  
Karl F. Macdorman

The uncanny valley (UV) effect is a negative affective reaction to human-looking artificial entities. It hinders comfortable, trust-based interactions with android robots and virtual characters. Despite extensive research, a consensus has not formed on its theoretical basis or methodologies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess operationalizations of human likeness (independent variable) and the UV effect (dependent variable). Of 468 studies, 72 met the inclusion criteria. These studies employed 10 different stimulus creation techniques, 39 affect measures, and 14 indirect measures. Based on 247 effect sizes, a three-level meta-analysis model revealed the UV effect had a large effect size, Hedges’ g = 1.01 [0.80, 1.22]. A mixed-effects meta-regression model with creation technique as the moderator variable revealed face distortion produced the largest effect size, g = 1.46 [0.69, 2.24], followed by distinct entities, g = 1.20 [1.02, 1.38], realism render, g = 0.99 [0.62, 1.36], and morphing, g = 0.94 [0.64, 1.24]. Affective indices producing the largest effects were threatening, likable, aesthetics, familiarity , and eeriness , and indirect measures were dislike frequency, categorization reaction time, like frequency, avoidance , and viewing duration . This meta-analysis—the first on the UV effect—provides a methodological foundation and design principles for future research.

2022 ◽  
Robert E. Criss

ABSTRACT Field data reveal how the discharge (Q), channel area (A), and average water velocity (Vavg) of natural streams functionally depend on the effective stage (h) above channel bottom. A graphical technique allows the level that corresponds to a dry channel, denoted “h0,” to be determined, permitting the dependent variables Q, A, and Vavg to all be expressed as simple functions of h, equal to hL– h0, where hL is the local stage that is typically reported relative to an arbitrary, site-specific datum. Once h0 is known, plots of log Q, log A, and log Vavg versus log h can be constructed using available data. These plots define strong, nearly linear trends for which the slopes (1) quantify the power relationships among these variables; (2) show that Vavg varies nearly linearly with h, unlike behaviors assumed in the Chezy and Manning equations; (3) distinguish the individual contributions of A and Vavg to discharge, which is their product; (4) provide quantitative means with which to compare different sites; and (5) offer new insights into the character and dynamics of natural streams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-72
Sanjeeva Dhakal ◽  
Prabha Kharel

Introduction:  The uncontrolled spread of COVID-19 worldwide has confined millions of people to their homes. In addition to being a public physical health emergency, COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) has significantly resulted in a large number of psychological distress and impacts. The career oriented professional students are away from their academic environment. Aims: This study aims to assess the psychological distress impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Proficiency Certificate Level Nursing of  Nepalgunj Nursing Campus, Kohalpur, Banke, Nepal. Methods: The online survey with a link directed to students of Proficiency Certificate Level (PCL) Nursing of Nepalgunj Nursing Campus, Kohalpur, Banke, Nepal  conducted during lockdown (July 16th –July 21st 2020) which was open for 6 days. Sociodemographic characteristics are the independent variables. Psychological distress was constructed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) Scale as a dependent variables. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: The evidence of the survey showed that in total 80.2, % (severely distressed - 30.7%, moderately distressed -29.7%, mildly distressed- 19.8%) of the Proficiency Certificate Level Nursing students of Nepalgunj Nursing Campus, were having psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown assessed by using K10 scale. Conclusion: The present study showed that Proficiency Certificate Level Nursing students were moderately and severely distressed during lockdown of Covid-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Ali Farki ◽  
Reza Baradaran Kazemzadeh ◽  
Elham Akhondzadeh Noughabi

Extensive research has been performed on continuous and noninvasive cuff-less blood pressure (BP) measurement using artificial intelligence algorithms. This approach involves extracting certain features from physiological signals, such as ECG, PPG, ICG, and BCG, as independent variables and extracting features from arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals as dependent variables and then using machine-learning algorithms to develop a blood pressure estimation model based on these data. The greatest challenge of this field is the insufficient accuracy of estimation models. This paper proposes a novel blood pressure estimation method with a clustering step for accuracy improvement. The proposed method involves extracting pulse transit time (PTT), PPG intensity ratio (PIR), and heart rate (HR) features from electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals as the inputs of clustering and regression, extracting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) features from ABP signals as dependent variables, and finally developing regression models by applying gradient boosting regression (GBR), random forest regression (RFR), and multilayer perceptron regression (MLP) on each cluster. The method was implemented using the MIMIC-II data set with the silhouette criterion used to determine the optimal number of clusters. The results showed that because of the inconsistency, high dispersion, and multitrend behavior of the extracted features vectors, the accuracy can be significantly improved by running a clustering algorithm and then developing a regression model on each cluster and finally weighted averaging of the results based on the error of each cluster. When implemented with 5 clusters and GBR, this approach yielded an MAE of 2.56 for SBP estimates and 2.23 for DBP estimates, which were significantly better than the best results without clustering (DBP: 6.27, SBP: 6.36).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lara Dörge ◽  
Milan Büscher ◽  
Jasmin Drews ◽  
Annike Eylering ◽  
Florian Fiebelkorn

It is essential to engage the public in conservation measures to conserve insects. We investigate the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), as well as knowledge, attitudes, and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education level, and income) as predictors of willingness to donate (WTD) and actual donations to insect conservation for a representative German sample (N = 515; MAge = 49.36, SD = 16.73; female = 50.1%). The PMT subcomponents severity, self-efficacy, and response efficacy, as well as attitudes toward insects, income, and education level, significantly predicted WTD. In contrast, severity, response barriers, age, gender, and the WTD significantly influenced actual donations. Overall, components of the PMT have high predictive power for both dependent variables. Our results suggest that an intention-behavior gap exists between the intention to donate and the actual donation toward insect conservation. Measures to increase WTD and actual donations for insect conservation are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e437
Ş. S. Seçilmiş ◽  
D. Koçak Yanık ◽  
S. Fadıloğlu ◽  
F. Göğüş

The factors affecting the microwave bleaching of sunflower oil and the interaction between them were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology using a three-factor five-level central composite rotatable design. Microwave power, time and the amount of bleaching clay were selected as independent variables studied in the range of 70-120 W, 2-15 min, and 0.01-0.5%. The dependent variables that measure the bleaching efficiency and oil quality were evaluated as hue angle, chroma and totox value. Optimization was carried out by minimizing totox and chroma and maximizing hue angle. Hue angle, chroma and totox were found as 96.91, 37.66 and 23.31 under optimal conditions. Optimal microwave bleaching was successfully performed by using less bleaching clay (0.4%) and a shorter time (8 min) compared to the current industrial application without any adverse effect on oil quality. Hence, microwave bleaching is thought to be an alternative method for the bleaching of edible oils.

Hengchun Hu ◽  
Xiaodan Li

The nonlocal symmetry of the new (3+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation is obtained with the truncated Painlev\'{e} method. The nonlocal symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry for the prolonged system by introducing auxiliary dependent variables. The finite symmetry transformation related to the nonlocal symmetry of the integrable (3+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation is studied. Meanwhile, the new (3+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation is proved by the consistent tanh expansion method and many interaction solutions among solitons and other types of nonlinear excitations such as cnoidal periodic waves and resonant soliton solution are given.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Minchul Kim ◽  
Kyu Sung Choi ◽  
Ryoo Chang Hyun ◽  
Inpyeong Hwang ◽  
Tae Jin Yun ◽  

AbstractTo compare free-water corrected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in the normal-appearing periependymal area between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and multiple sclerosis (MS) to investigate occult pathophysiology. This prospective study included 44 patients (mean age, 39.52 ± 11.90 years; 14 men) with AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD (n = 20) and MS (n = 24) who underwent DTI between April 2014 and April 2020. Based on free-water corrected DTI measures obtained from normal-appearing periependymal voxels of (1) lateral ventricles and (2) the 3rd and 4th ventricles as dependent variables, MANCOVA was conducted to compare the two groups, using clinical variables as covariates. A significant difference was found between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and MS in the 3rd and 4th periependymal voxels (λ = 0.462, P = 0.001). Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity was significantly decreased and radial diffusivity was increased in AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD in post-hoc analysis, compared with MS (F = 27.616, P < 0.001, F = 7.336, P = 0.011, and F = 5.800, P = 0.022, respectively). Free-water corrected DTI measures differ in the periependymal area surrounding the diencephalon and brain stem/cerebellum between MS and NMOSD, which may suggest occult white matter injury in areas with distribution of AQP-4 in NMOSD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-40
Mostofa Mahmud Hasan ◽  
B.M. Sajjad Hossain ◽  
Md. Abu Sayem

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is believed to be an indicator of a country’s economic condition. Bangladesh’s GDP increased at a pace of 8.15% in fiscal 2018-19 as per the base year 2005-06. By the year 2019, Bangladesh has become the seventh fastest-growing economy in the world. This paper used multiple regression analysis model for the macroeconomic factors. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of macroeconomic factors considering GDP as the dependent variables and inflation rate, import, and export are considered as independent. This paper represents that import and export are positively associated factors with GDP whereas inflation rate is a negatively associated factor. This study concluded with revealing the importance of conducting further study by considering more economic variables to measure the economic growth as a whole.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
John G. Grundy

Researchers have recently begun to question the specificity and reliability of conflict adaptation effects, also known as sequential congruency effects (SCEs), a highly cited effect in cognitive psychology. Some have even used the lack of reliability across tasks (e.g., Flanker, and Stroop) to argue against models of cognitive control that have dominated the field for decades. The present study tested the possibility that domain-general processes across tasks might appear on more sensitive mouse-tracking metrics rather than overall reaction times. The relationship between SCE effects on the Stroop and Flanker tasks were examined for the first time using a mouse-tracking paradigm. Three main findings emerged: (1) Robust SCEs were observed for both the Stroop and Flanker tasks at the group level, (2) Within-task split-half reliabilities for the SCE across dependent variables were weak at best and non-existent in many cases, and (3) SCEs for the Flanker and Stroop tasks did not correlate with each other for overall reaction times, but did show significant correlations between tasks on more dynamic measures that captured processes before response execution. These findings contribute to the literature by highlighting how mouse-tracking may be a fruitful avenue by which future studies can examine the specificity and reliability of conflict adaptation and tease apart different theoretical models producing the effects.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document